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III. Intel lectual



ideas, what.

Class IV. in their being a clock or a landscape, we can have but a

Here very inadequate idea of their character and composition. principle . The ideas presented to the mind, from which soever Ideas of of

of those tw

of these two sources derived, are of two kinds—SIMPLE two descriptions and COMPLEX.

SIMPLE IDEAS consist of such as are limited to a single of the above sources. notion or perception ; as those of unity, darkness, light, Simple

... sound, simple pain or uneasiness. And in the reception ideas, what.

of these the mind is passive; for it can neither make them to itself, nor can it, in any instance, have any idea which does not wholly consist of them; or, in other words, it cannot contemplate any one of them 'otherwise than in

its totality. Complex COMPLEX IDEAS are formed out of various simple ideas

associated together or contemplated derivatively. And to this class belong the ideas of an army, a battle, a triangle, gratitude, veneration, gold, silver, an orange, an apple : in the formation of all which it must be obvious that the mind is active: for it is the activity of the mind alone that produces the complexity out of such ideas as are simple. And that the ideas I have now referred to are complex, must be plain to every one; for every one must be sensible that the mind cannot form to itself the idea of an orange, without uniting into one aggregate the simple ideas of roundness, yellowness, juiciness, and

sweetness; and so of the rest. Formed out Complex ideas are formed out of simple ideas by of simple ideas by many operations of the mind ; the principal of which,

however, are some combination of them, some abstraction or some comparisou. Let us take a view of each of

these. Complex And first of complex ideas of COMBINATION. Unity, ideas of combina

as I have already observed, is a simple idea ; and it is tion.

one of the most common simple ideas that can be presented to the mind; for every object without, and every notion within, tend equally to excite it: and being a simple idea, the mind, as I have also remarked, is passive on its presentation : it can neither form such an idea to itself, nor contemplate it otherwise than in its totality : but it

various mental operations.

can combine the ideas of as many units as it pleases, and Class IV.

III. Intelhence produce the complex idea of a hundred, a thousand lectual or a hundred thousand. So beauty is a complex idea ; principle. for the mind, in forming it, combines a variety of separate ideas into one common aggregate. Thus Dryden, in delineating the beautiful Victoria in his Love Triumphant,

Her eyes, her lips, her cheeks, her shape, her features,
Seem to be drawn by Love's own hand; by Love
Himself in love.

In like manner the mind can produce complex ideas by Complex

ideas of an opposite process; and that is by ABSTRACTION or abstraction. separation. Thus chalk, snow, and milk, though agreeing, perhaps, in no other respect, coincide in the same colour ; and the mind, contemplating this agreement, may abstract or separate the colour from the other properties of these three objects, and form the idea which is indicated by the term whiteness; and having thus acquired a new idea by the process of abstraction, it may afterwards apply it as a character to a variety of other objects ; and hence particular ideas become general or universal. Other complex ideas are produced by COMPARISON. Complex

ideas of Thus if the mind take one idea, as that of a foot, as a compadeterminate measure, and place it by the side of another rison. idea, as the idea of a table, the result will be a formation of the complex idea of length, breadth, and thickness. Or, if we vary the primary idea, we may obtain, as a result, the secondary ideas of coarseness and fineness.

And hence, complex ideas must be almost infinitely Hence more numerous than simple ideas which are their elements ideas far or materials ; as words must be always far more numerous » than letters. I have instanced only a few of their prin- than simple. cipal kinds, and have applied them only to a few of the great variety of subjects to which they are referable, and by which they are elucidated, in the great work on Human Understanding.

It must, however, from this imperfect sketch, appear Ideas posobvious that many of our ideas have a NATURAL CORRE

more numerous

sess a natural corre

III. Intel

ral con

reason to trace out

Class IV. SPONDENCE, congruity, and connexion with each other; lectual and as many, perhaps, on the contrary, a NATURAL REprinciple. PUGNANCY, incongruity, and disconnexion. Thus, if I spondence; were to speak of a cold fire I should put together ideas or a natu

that are naturally disconnected and incongruous; and gruity. should consequently make an absurd proposition, or, to Exemplified.

adopt common language, talk nonsense. I should be guilty of the same blunder if I were to talk of a square billiardball, or a soft, reposing rock; but a warm fire, on the contrary, a white or even a black billiard-ball, and a hard,

rugged rock are congruous ideas, and consequently conOffice of sistent with good sense. Now it is the direct office of

that discursive faculty of the mind which we call reason, these con- to trace out these natural coincidences or disjunctions, gruities and and to connect or scparate them by proper relations : for incongruities; a just it is a just perception of the natural connexion and conperception of gruity, or of the natural repugnancy and incongruity of them a proof of a our ideas that shows a sound mind and constitutes real sound

knowledge. The wise man is he who has industriously mind, and a

laid in and carefully assorted an extensive stock of ideas;

as the stupid or ignorant man is he who, from natural ledge.

hebetude, or having had but few opportunities, has collected and arranged but a small number. The man who discovers the natural relations of his ideas quickly, is a man of sagacity; and, in popular language, is said, and

correctly so, to possess a quick, sharp intellect; the man, Ignorant on the contrary, who discovers these relations slowly, we

call dull or heavy. If he rapidly discover and put toMan of

gether relations that lie remote, and, perhaps touch only sagacity. Man of in a few points, but those points striking and pleasant, he dulness. is a man of wit, genius, or brilliant fancy, of agreeable alMan of wit, lusion and metaphor ; if he intermix ideas of fancy with genius, and imagi- ideas of reality, those of reflexion with those of sensation, nation. and mistake the one for the other, however numerous his

ideas may be, and whatever their order of succession, he Mad-man: is a madman; he reasons from false principles, and, as we or out of his say in popular language, and with perfect correctness, is judgement. out of his judgement. Association Finally, our ideas are very apt to ASSOCIATE or run

source of real know

Wise man, what.


of ideas.

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together in trains ; and upon this peculiar and happy dis- Class IV.

III. Intelposition of the mind we lay our chief dependence in sow- lectual" ing the seeds of education. It often happens, however, principle. that some of our ideas have been associated erroneously, and even in a state of early life, before education has commenced ; and hence, from the difficulty of separating Sympathies them, most of the sympathies and antipathies, the whimsi and prejudices that occasionally haunt us to the latest whims and period of old age.

prejudices. Such, then, is the manner, in which the mind, at first General a sheet of white paper, without characters of any kind, reca becomes furnished with that vast store of ideas, the materials of wisdom and knowledge, which the busy and boundless fancy of man paints upon it with an almost endless variety. The whole is derived from experience, THE EXPERIENCE OF SENSATION OR OF REFLEXION; from the observations of the mind employed either about external sensible objects, or the internal operations of itself, perceived and reflected upon by its own faculties. These FACULTIES are to the mind what organs are to the Hence fa

culties to body: they are its ministers in the productio:2, combina- ;

mind, the mind tion, and resolution of different trains of ideas, and in what organs supplying it with the results of its own activity. We

are to the

body. sometimes, however, are apt to speak of them as distinct Ofien and separate existences from the mind, or as possessing spoken of

as distinct a sort of independent entity, and as controlling one existe another by their individual authorities, and occasionally, but erroindeed, as controlling the mind itself: for we accustom ourselves to describe the will as being overpowered by fied. the judgement; or the judgement as being overpowered by the imagination; or the mind itself as being carried headlong by the violence of its own passions. By all which, however, we only mean or should only mean, that the mind does not, on such occasions, exert its own faculties in a fitting or sober manner, or that from some diseased affection, it is incapable of doing so. For the

merely disfaculties of the mind are so many powers; and, as powers, tinct are mere attributes of the being or substance to which

all disinct they belong, and not the being or substance itself. These, from each

? neously.

able of doing nd, as powerch power concert


powers; and


Class IV. therefore, being all different powers in the mind or in the III. Intel lectual de man, to do several actions, he exerts them as he thinks principle. fit: but the power to do one action is not operated upon

by the power to do another action : for the power of thinking operates not on the power of choosing, nor the power of choosing on the power of thinking: any more than the power of dancing operates on the power of singing, or the power of singing on the power of dancing*,

as any one who reflects on these things will easily perceive. The mind The body has its feelings, and the mind has its feelhas also its feelings as ings also ; and it is the feelings of the latter which we call well as the

PASSIONS, a mere Latin term for the feelings or sufferbody.

ings of colloquial language. The feelings of the body are numerous and diversified, as those of simple ache or

ease, hunger, thirst, heat, cold, and a multitude of others. These are

Those of the mind are still more numerous and more called passions. diversified, for they comprise the multifarious train of Numerous grief, joy, love, hatred, avarice, ambition, conceit, and and diversi- perhaps hundreds more: all which, whether of body or fied.

mind, Mr. Locke has endeavoured to resolve into differExamples.

ent modifications of pleasure or pain, according as they

are productive of good or evil. Hence the But the analogy we are thus conducting between the mind subject to va

mind and the body holds much farther : for as the latter rious dis- is subject to DISEASES OF VARIOUS KINDS, so also is the well as the former. The body may be enfeebled in all its powers, in body. only a few of them, or in only a single one. So also may Those dis- the mind: “ The powers of perception and imaginaeases may be also con- tion,” observes M. Pinel, “ are frequently disturbed withstitutional out any excitement of the passions. The functions of and permaperi- the understanding, on the other hand, are ofter perfectly

sound, while the man is driven by his passions to acts of accidentai turbulence and outrage.” And these infirmities, whether and tempo- of body or mind, may be constitutional and permanent, rary.

periodical or recurrent, or merely incidental and temporary. The body may be of a sanguineous temperament, of a plethoric temperament, of a nervous or irritable tem

eases as

odical and recurrent,


* Locke, p. 129.

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