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at the same time that it conveys this information, pro- Class IV. duces such an additional effect, that the mind is able, at III. Intel

lectual its own option, to call up an exact notion or idea of principle. those qualities at a distant period, or when the objects themselves are no longer present? Is there, or is there How atnot, any resemblance between the external or sensible tem

be explained object, and the internal or mental idea or notion ? If by former there be a resemblance, in what does that resemblance bypotheses. consist? and how is it produced and supported ? Does Explanation the external object throw off representative likenesses of Epicurus. of itself in films or under any other modification, so fine as to be able, like the electric or magnetic aura, to pass without injury from the object to the sentient organ, and from the sentient organ to the sensory, or mental presence-chamber? or has the mind itself a of Aristofaculty of producing, like a mirror, accurate counter- tle. signs, intellectual pictures or images correspondent with the sensible images communicated from the external object to the sentient organ? If, on the contrary, of Plato there be no resemblance, are the mental perceptions and

psycholomerc notions, or intellectual symbols excited in the gists. mind by the action of the external sense; which, while they bear no similitude to the qualities of the object discerned, answer the purpose of those qualities, as letters answer the purpose of sounds ? or are we sure of Berkeley that there is any external world whatever; any thing and Hume. beyond the intellectual principle that perceives and the sensations and notions that are perceived; or even any thing beyond those sensations and notions, those impressions and ideas themselves ?

Several of these questions may perhaps appear in no small degree whimsical and brain-sick, and more worthy of St. Luke's than of a work of physiological study. But all of them, and at least as many more, of a temperament as wild as the wildest, have been asked and insisted upon, and supported again and again in different ages and countries, from the zenith of Grecian science down to our own day, by philosophers of the clearest intellects in other respects, and who had no idea of labouring

and later

III. Intel lectual


Class IV. under any such mental infirmity, nor ever dreamed of

tel.. the necessity of being blistered and taking physic... principle. The nature of the questions themselves, therefore, The obscu- when put by the characters referred to, sufficiently marity of the "nifest the obscurity of the subject to which they relate: subject proved by and to enter into the discussions to which they have the nature given rise, would lead us to an irrecoverable distance of the questions pro from the path before us. Those who are desirous of posed. • following them up and of witnessing an exposure of their These hy- absurdity, cannot do better than apply themselves to potheses thrown the metaphysical writings of Dr. Reid, Dr. Beattie, Dr.

yn by.... Campbell and Professor Stewart; who if, on the overlater writers who have throw of so many Babel-buildings, they have not been little suc- able to raise an edifice much more substantial in their ceeded in establishing stead, have only failed from the insuperable difficulty of any other. · the attempt. The difli No man was more sensible of this difficulty than Mr. culty felt Locke, nor has taken more pains both to avoid what is by Locke, who studi- unintelligible and unprofitable, and to elucidate what ously avoid- may be turned to a good account and brought home to an ed the ab

ordinary comprehension. It was his imperishable Essay part of the on Human Understanding that gave the first check subject, and elucidated to the wild and visionary conceits in which the most cewhat was lebrated luminaries of the age were at that time engaged; capable of elucidation recalled mankind from the chasing of shadows to the in his Essay study of realities, from a pursuit of useless and inexpliUnder- cable subtleties to that of important and cognoscible substanding. jects; or rather to the only mode in which the great in

quiry before him could be followed up with any reason

able hope of success or advantage. Character of To this elaborate and wonderful work which has conthis work.

ferred an ever-during fame, not only on its matchless author, but on the nation to which he belonged, and even the age in which he lived, the physiologist cannot pay too close an attention. It is, indeed, of the highest importance to every science, as teaching us the elements of all science, and the only mode by which science can be rendered really useful, and carried forward to ultimate perfection; but it is of immediate importance to every branch


on Human

the unin


of physical knowledge, and particularly to that which is Class IV. employed in unfolding the structure of the mind, and its ". Intelconnexion with the visible fabric that incloses it. It may, principle. perhaps, be somewhat too long ; it may occasionally em- , brace subjects which are not necessarily connected with it; its terms may not always be precise, nor its opinions in every instance correct : but it discovers intrinsic and most convincing evidence that the man who wrote it must have had a head peculiarly clear, and a heart peculiarly sound: it is strictly original in its matter, highly important in its subject, luminous and forcible in its argument, perspicuous in its style, and comprehensive in its scope. It steers equally clear of all former systems : we Avoids all have nothing of the mystical archetypes of Plato, the in- the

1- telligible corporeal phantasms of Aristotle, or the material species jargon of of Epicurus; we are equally without the intelligible to

1 times ; world of the Greek schools, and the innate ideas of Des and clearly Cartes. Passing by all which, from actual experience de


ince the growth and observation, it delineates the features, and describes and features the operations of the human mind with a degree of pre

of the mind cision and minuteness which has never been exhibited earliest apeither before or since; and stands, and probably ever pea will stand, like a rock before the puny waves of opposition by which it has since been assailed from various quarters. The author may speak of it with warmth, but he speaks from a digested knowledge of its merits: for he has studied it thoroughly and repeatedly, and there is, perhaps, no book to which he is so much indebted for whatever small degree of discrimination, or habit of reasoning he may possibly be allowed to lay claim to.

Upon one point he is perfectly clear, and that is that Has been the chief objections at any time urged against this cele-5 brated production have proceeded from an utter mistake some esof its meaning, of which he could give numerous instances, se if such a digression were allowable, from the writings of many who have the credit of having studied it profoundly. The remark applies to several of the most popular psychologists of both North and South Britain, but especially to those of the continent, and more parti- especially

from its


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in France. VOL. IV.

stood in


III. Intel

Gives to
the medical

and Hunter

mind is when first

Class IV. cularly still to M. Condorcet, from whom the French in lectual general have received an erroneous idea of several of its principle. leading doctrines. It is to this book the medical student

.com ought to turn himself for a knowledge of the laws that student the regulate the developement and growth of the mind, as physiology, he should do to the labours of Haller or Hunter for a of the mind : as Haller knowledge of those that regulate the developement and

er growth of the body, and I shall hence draw largely upon give that of the body. it through the remainder of this introduction. What the The whole then of the metaphysical rubbish of the

ancient schools being cleared away by the purging and formed. purifying energy of the Essay on Human Understand

ing, mankind have since been enabled to contemplate the body and mind as equally, at birth, a tabula rasa, or unwritten sheet of paper; as consisting equally of a blank or vacuity of impressions ; but as equally capable of acquiring impressions by the operation of external

objects, and equally and most skilfully endowed with disPowers or tinct powers or faculties for this purpose; those of the faculties of the mind

body being the external senses of sight, hearing, smell, compared taste, and touch ; and those of the mind the internal with those of the body.

senses of perception, reason, judgement, imagination,

and memory. Possibly a It is possible that a few slight impressions may be profew slight impressions duced a short time antecedently to birth; and it is produced certain that various instinctive tendencies which, however, before birth; and have no connection with the mind, are more perfect, certainly

because more needful, at the period of birth than ever instinctive tendencies. afterwards; and we have also frequent proofs of an here

ditary or accidental predisposition towards particular subjects. But the fundamental doctrine before us is by

no means affected by such collateral circumstances. First im External objects first impress or operate upon the outpression of ward senses ; and these senses by means hitherto unexexternal objects. plained, and, perhaps, altogether inexplicable, immedi

ately impress or operate upon the mind, or excite in it

perceptions or ideas of the presence and qualities of such Idea, what, objects ; the word idea being here employed, not in any

ved by of the significations of the schools, but in its broad, Locke.

as em



popular meaning, as importing “whatever a man observes, Class IV.

III. Intel and is conscious to himself he has in his mind”*; what- lectual ever was formerly , intended by the terms archetype, principle. phantasm, species, thought, notion, or conception, or whatever else it may be which we can be employed about in thinking t. And to these effects Mr. Locke gave the Ideas of name of ideas of SENSATION, in allusion to the source from which they are derived. But the mind, as we have already observed, has va-. Action of

the mind rious powers or faculties as well as the body; and they are on itself. quite as active and lively in their respective functions : in consequence of which the ideas of external objects are not only perceived, but retained, thought of, compared compounded, abstracted, doubted, believed, desired ; and hence another fountain, and of a very capacious flow, from which we also derive ideas : viz. a reflex act or perception of the mind's own operations; whence the ideas Ideas of

reflexion. derived from this fountain are denominated ideas of REFLEXION. The ideas, then, derived from these two sources, and

therefore of which have sometimes been called OBJECTIVE and sub- two kinds, JECTIVE, constitute all our experience, and, consequently,

wy, and suball our knowledge. Whatever stock of information a man jective: may be possessed of, however richly he may be stored and only

derived with taste, learning, or science, if he turn his attention from these inwards, and diligently examine his own thoughts, he will two sources, find that he has not a single idea in his mind, but what has been derived from the one or the other of these two channels. But let not this important observation be forgotten by any one ; that the ideas the mind possesses will

Number be fewer or more numerous, simpler or more diversified, clear or confused, according to the number of the objects of the ideas

we possess, presented to it, and the extent of its reflexion and examination. Thus a clock or a landscape may be for ever before by the our eyes, but unless we direct our attention to them, and the mind. study their different parts, although we cannot be deceived

Ideas are


and nature



• Locke, on Human Understanding, B. 1. ch. i. $ 3.
+ Locke, B. 1. ch. i. $ 8.

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