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Gen. I. These, however, are, in every instance, modifications of Spec. VIII.

1. empathema, and especially of rage or fright, grafted on a Lyssa. highly irritable temperament, and henee associated with Rabies.

hysterical, or some other spasmodic motions. Remote or Of the remote or predisposing causes of this disease we causes un

• know nothing. The excitement of vehement rage, putrid known. . food, long continued thirst from a want of water to quench Various incidents sus-it, severe and pinching hunger, a hot and sultry state, or pected, but some other intemperament of the atmosphere, have been, without sufficient au-*" in turn, appealed to as probable predisponents, but the thority.

appeal in no instance rests on any authority. That the
stimulus of vehement rage will often produce a peculiar
influence affecting the saliva, and rendering it capable, by
a bite, of exciting the most alarming symptoms of nerv-
ous irritation we have just shown; but these symptoms
are not those of lyssa ; and the virus, whatever it consists
in, appears to be of a different kind. Putridity is, per-
haps, the ordinary state in which dogs and cats obtain the
offal, on which, for the most part, they feed: they show
no disgust to it, and it offers a cause far too general for
the purpose. In long voyages, again, when a crew has
been without water, and reduced to short provisions, dogs
have been, in innumerable instances, known to die both
of thirst and hunger without betraying any signs of genu-
ine rabies. That a peculiar intemperament of the atmo-
sphere may at times be a cause, it is impossible to deny;
but the disease, even when of spontaneous origin, has ap-
peared under, perhaps, every variety of meteorological
change, and seems to be far less common in hot and tro-

pical regions than in those of a more moderate temperaRabies less ture: for it is not known, except by report, in South Acommon in

merica, though it is said to have occasionally appeared in torrid than in tempe the West Indies, as I have been repeatedly informed by rate cli

intelligent residents in those quarters; while M. Volney tells us that it is equally uncommon in Egypt and Syria, and Mr. Barrow, at the Cape of Good Hope and in the interior of the country, where the Caffrés feed their dogs on nothing but putrid meat, and this often in the highest degree of offensiveness.


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causes, but of them

It is not improbable that several of these may occasion- Gen. 1:

Spec. VIII, ally become exciting causes; but it is hence obvious that Entasia they are not competent of themselves to produce the dis- Lyssa. ease. Some of them indeed have been put to a direct


Several of test, and have explicitly proved their incompetency. the above Thus in the wards of the Veterinary School at Alfort, ma

ever be exthree dogs were shut up and made the subjects of express citing experiments. One was fed with salted meats, and totally restrained from drinking: the second was allowed nothing selves inbut water; and the third allowed neither food nor drink competent

to produce of any kind. The first died on the forty-first day of the the disease. experiment, the second on the thirty-third day; and the Proofs of third on the twenty-fifth ; not one of them evincing the tion,

this asserslightest symptom of rabies.. That the specific virus of rabies is less volatile and The specific

virus of active than many other kinds of morbid poisons is clear rabies less from the fact that it is never found diffused in the atmo- active and

volatile than sphere, so as to produce an epidemy; that it never ope- many morrates on those who are most susceptible of its influence ex- bid poisons, cept when accompanied with a wound or inserted into the hence all,

that are bitcutis*; and that, even in this case, it usually requires in ten rarely mankind, and probably also in other animals, some aux- suffer. iliary excitement to enable it to carry forward the process


not more of assimilation : for it rarely happens that all the men or than one quadrupeds that are bitten by a rabid dog suffer from the

twenty: inoculation. Mr. Hunter, indeed, gives an instance in and her which out of twenty persons who were bitten by the same also the dog only one received the disease. This want of activity is a happy circumstance, as it affords an important inter- usually val for medical treatment, if we should ever be so fortu

takes place

de between the nate as to hit upon any curative process that may be de- injury and pended upon. At the same time I cannot avoid again to the

Virus also observe that as this virus is less volatile than most others, more indeit is perhaps less indecomposible than any of them, and composible

than any hence is capable of remaining in a dormant and unaffected other state, in any part of the system, into which it has been and hence received by insertion, for a far longer period than any capable

out of

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mant for a * Trolliet, ubi suprà.

longer peB B 2

riod than any.

Spec. VIII


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GEN. I. other known contagion whatever. It is generally calcuEntasia

1. lated, but I do not know upon what data, that of those Lyssa. who are exposed to the venom about one in four matures Rabies.

the complaint, and the rest escape. Whether When the disease has once fixed itself among a large the acrimo- establishment of hounds, it has been said that the acrimony becomes concentrat- ny of the poison becomes more concentrated and active; ed and ac

operates through an unbroken skin, and even taints the tive by mul tiplication? atmosphere. There is, however, no solid foundation for No solid such an opinion ; and though the disease runs rapidly

from one dog to another, and it may be difficult in many for such an opinion. cases to trace the marks of a bite, yet considering that the Whether smallest and most imperceptible scratch of a tooth may be capable of

a sufficient medium of infection, and that every inoculated being re. ceived with- dog adds to the sources from which it may be derived,

' there is no difficulty in accounting for such rapidity of

spread without ascribing anomalies to the laws by which asserted by it is regulated. Heister, indeed, has given a case of lys

sa, in one of the foreign collections, produced in a man by his having merely put into his mouth the cord by which the mad dog had been confined: but as in this in

stance there was probably some ulceration in the mouth and by Pal- at the time, there is nothing marvellous in its production. marius.

Palmarius, in like manner, relates the case of a peasant The effects in these who, in the last stage of the disease, communicated it to counted for

his children in kissing them and taking leave of them *. upon the Yet unless we could be certain that there were no cracks law of the

or other sores on the lips, and no eruption on the cheeks disease. of these children, the example affords no proof. Proofs of- I can distinctly state that I have seen the same interfered.

communication successively repeated between a rabid young man and a young woman to whom he was betrothed, and who could not be restrained from such a token of affection, without any evil consequences; notwithstanding that the patient was labouring at that time under hydrophobia and all the severest marks of the disease which destroyed him in a few hours afterwards,


cases ac


* De Morb. Contagios. p. 266. Paris, 4to. 1518.


the virus

and had also a perpetual desire to spit his saliva about Gen. I. the room. M. Trolliet asserts not only that the virus will not permeate a sound skin, but that it is only con- Lyssa.

Rabies. tained in the frothy matter communicated from the lips ; and that neither the blood, nor the secretions of any kind are tainted with it, or give rise to the disease, whatever scratch or other injury may be received during dissection. It has, still farther, been doubted whether the virus it. Has been

sometimes self is capable of propagation from the human subject to denied that any animal even by inoculation : but a bold experiment

can be proof M. Magendie and M. Breschet has completely settled pagated in this question ; for on June 19, 1813, having collected any way upon a piece of linen a portion of the saliva of a rabid human subman in the last stage of the disease, they inserted it under ject. the skin of two dogs that were in waiting, both of them Contradict

ed by exin good health ; of which one became rabid on the 27th periments of July, and bit two others, one of which also fell a victim

of Magen

die and to the disease just a month afterwards.

Breschet. The general aggregate of the symptoms point forcibly Nervous to the nervous system as the immediate quarter of dis- system the

immediate turbar.ce. Such was the opinion of Morgagni, Cullen, quarter of Percival, and Marcet; and such indeed is the common

disturbance : opinion of the present day. By many writers, however,

fects referthe effects have been rather referred to the sanguiferous red by somo system and regarded as a fever; Mangor describes it as

the sanguia continued fever * ; and Rush and many others as an ferous sysinflammatory affection ; Bader as a fever sui generis f.

tem and

regarded as Nor is the difficulty in the least degree removed by dis- a fever or section, for nothing can be more at variance than the

mation. appearances in different cases. Generally speaking the

Question fauces and parts adjoining exhibit redness and inflamma- examined, tory characters. But while in some instances these are a

matory apso considerable as to be on the point of gangrene, in pearances others there is no inflammatory appearance whatever. Morgagni has examined and described bodies in both these

but the ef

writers to



:iin omintansahoonam and inflam



* Act. Havn. 11.

+ Versuch ener neuen Theorie, &c.


Gen. I. states. Rolfinc gives one or two decided cases of the latSpec. VIII. Entasia

ter sort *: while Feriar notices examples in which the inLyssa, * flammation of the fauces had spread over the whole esoRabies.

phagus and even the stomach t; and another writer has recorded an instance in which it had descended to the ileus, which was in a state of gangrene . In some cases the encephalon, and even the spinal marrow, has appeared to be as much diseased as the fauces; the vessels turgid;

the plexus choroides blackish ; the ventricles loaded with Sometimes water: though in the cases examined by M. Magendie, no such ap- which were confined to dogs, there was no appearance of

inflammation either in the brain or spine. Sometimes the lungs have been inflamed, sometimes the liver, sometimes the vagina ; while the blood, according to Sauvages, has been also found in a dissolved state, and, according to Morgagni, in a state highly tenacious and coagulable. From all which we can only conclude that owing to the violence of the disease, every organ is greatly disturbed, and those the most so that in particular cases are most se

verely affected. Riedel asserts that among dogs a highly Whether offensive fetor of a peculiar character is thrown forth from accompanied every part of the body $ : but I have not found this rewith an offensive fetor. mark confirmed by the veterinary practitioners of our own Seems to country; and it certainly does not apply to mankind, have been with an exception or two that seem to depend upon some

s from accidental circumstances ; for Wolf informs us, that in some ca- one of his patients, and a patient that ultimately recovered, sualty, but

the blood stunk intolerably as it was drawn from a vein ; neral conco- and a patient of Dr. Vaughan's complained of a most of

fensive smell that issued from the original wound, but of which no one was sensible except himself. In like manner the patient described by Dr. Marcet, towards the close of the disease, complained loudly of an intolerable stench that issued from his body generally, but without being

so in a few

not a ge


• Dissert. Anat. Lib. 1. cap. xii.
+ Medic. Facts and Observations, Vol. 1.

N. Act. Nat. Cur. Vol. iv. Obs. 20.
§ Act. Acad. Mogunt. Erf. 1757.

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