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Rabies.

animals. “ Constat repetitâ,” says Sauvages, “ apud G

Spec. VIII. Gallo-provinciales experientiâ, canes luposque rabidos Entasia bibisse, manducasse, flumen transasse, ut olim Marologii, et bis Forolivii observatum, adeoque nec cibum nec potum aversari.” The same fact is affirmed of rabid wolves in a case given by Trecourt in his Chirurgical Memoirs and Observations. Dr. James in like manner relates the case of a mad-dog that both drank milk and swam through a piece of water* ; and one or two similar cases are said to and said to have occurred among mankind t; though even here a be some.

times absent spasmodic constriction of the muscles of the chest, and in mankind. sometimes of the throat, seems to have been present. Dr. Vaughan, indeed, gives the case of a patient who called for drink through the whole course of the disease, and only ceased to ask for it a short time before his death.

I have occasionally met, on the contrary, with a few Hydrophoobstinate cases of hydrophobia, or water-dread, without any connexion with rabies : one especially in a young without

rabies. lady of nineteen years of age, of a highly nervous tem- Exemplified. perament, which was preceded by a very severe toothache and catarrh. The muscles of the throat had no constriction, except on the approach of liquids, and the patient through the whole of the disease, which lasted a week, was able to swallow solids without difficulty ; but the moment any kind of liquid was brought to her a strong spastic action took place, and all the muscles about the throat were violently convulsed if she attempted to swallow.

Similar examples are to be found in Battini, Dumas, Alibert, and several of the medical records, and particularly one of great obstinacy in the Edinburgh Medical Essays, which was chiefly relieved by repeated venesections, as the preceding case was by large doses of opium.

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• On Canine Madness, p. 10.

+ Fehr. Nachricht von einer tödslichen Krankheit nach dem tollen Hundsbisse. Gött. 1790, 8vo,

Inflammation of the Stomach with Hydrophobia, &c. by Dr. J. Innes. Ed. Med. Ess. I. p. 227.

by

ost

logy of rabies, thencerning the general quiring any prac

Cullen.

. [ORD. III. Gen. I. Hydrophobia is therefore too general and indefinite a Spec. VIII. mm Entasia

term to characterize the genus before us, unless we mean Lyssa. to include under it diseases to which it is by no means Rabies.

commonly applied, and which, in truth, have little connexion with rabies. Hunauld has, indeed, employed it in this extensive signification, and has hence made it embrace no less than seven distinct species, of which two only are irremediable *; and Swediaur has followed

his examplet. Pathology There is, even in the present day, so little satisfactorily. difficult and evaded known, and so few opportunities of acquiring any prac

tical knowledge concerning the general nature and pathowriters, and especially logy of rabies, that it might, perhaps, be most prudent

to imitate the modesty which Dr. Cullen has set us upon

this subject, and to let it pass without a single remark. An outline Yet the following hints, derived from the only three attempted by the pre

cases in which the author has ever been consulted, comsent author. pared with the larger range of observation and practice

of a few other physicians, and especially the valuable work of professor Trolliet of Lyons, together with the reflexions to which they have given rise in his own mind, may afford a little glimmering light into the principle of the disease, and give an opportunity to succeeding patho

logists of describing it more perspicuously. Close ana- The symptoms enumerated in the definition, and eslogy of lyssa

pecially the constrictive spasm that oppresses the musmus and cles of deglutition and of the chest generally, sufficiently its mischief, show that the present species of disease bears a very

close analogy to the two preceding, in the mischief which and in the it excites; and, as by far the most frequent cause of the

two preceding species is the irritation of a wound or its cause.

puncture on the surface of the body, it bears quite as close an analogy to them in the nature of its cause as in

that of its effects. Law by We have seen it to be a law operating throughout the which the extremities animal system, that if a morbid action commence in any of a continuous chain of functions Discours sur la Rage, et ses Remedes. Chateaus Gontier, 1714, 12mo.

† Nov. Nosol. Meth. Syst. vol. I. p. 511.

with

tris

tetanus in

nature of

atasia

at their ex

part whatever of a continuous chain of functions, or of Gen. I.

Spec. VIII. fibres, it often produces a peculiar impression upon its E extremities; so that the extremities themselves form in Lyssa. many instances, the chief seat of distress and even of

or fibres danger: and this more especially where the one extre- suffer mity of the chain becomes affected in consequence of the equally primary affection of the other. And we have also en- tremities, deavoured to show, from the general course and inter- often laid,

down, and mediate connexions of the nerves which supply the sur- here again face of the body, and particularly the extremities, that appealed to. they constitute a direct fibrous chain, of which those that Th

Óthot This law ap

pealed to in are, in all common cases, primarily irritated by wounds or illustration punctures in the spastic diseases before us, form the one

and tetanus, extremity, and those which enter into the muscles of the upper regions of the chest and the cheeks the other*. It is not necessary, therefore, to travel over the same ground again ; the reader may turn to it at his leisure : and he will find that we have hence endeavoured to trace out something of the means by which trismus and tetanus are produced by simple wounds or punctures in the limbs, and especially in an irritable habit.

Now if the reasoning be sound, as applied to trismus and equally and tetanus, it must be equally good as applied to lyssa ;

wan . .. applicable and will induce us to expect a more complicated disease which, for and a still more severe and desperate result; as we have, reas in the present instance, not merely an ordinary and may be mechanical, but a specific and chemical source of irrita

the capable of tion to encounter, and so indecomposible in its nature producing that it is capable of lurking in the system, and apparently disease. in the part where it may chance to be deposited, for weeks or even months without losing its activity : of continuing dormant, if there be no sufficient irritability of constitution or nervous fibre for it to operate upon, and of operating as soon as such a condition may arrive: for that some exciting cause is usually necessary to rouse it into action, will sufficiently appear in the sequel of this inquiry. Sir Lucas Pepys, however, Dr. Bardsley, and

various reasons,

a more fatal

* See the preceding Species ad init.

Lyssa.

neous

Girard of

Gen. I. various other writers have made it a question whether the Entasia

“: virus of rabies is ever originated, or produced spontane

ously, or in any other way maintained than by a direct Rabies.

communication from one animal to another; while M. Whether the disease be Girard, of Lyons, has denied that there is any such thing ever sponta- at all, and contended that rabies consists in nothing more Denied by than an acute degree of local irritation, and its effects on many. a highly mobile and excitable constitution. We have

long, however, had various examples on record, and have Lyons.

recently been furnished with another by Mr. Gillman, in Proofs of a which a dog chained up in a yard, and cut off from all spontaneous origin.

medium of contamination by other animals, has occasion

ally been attacked with genuine lyssa, and exhibited its This princi- most decisive characters. Professor Trolliet, whose exciple limited tensive experience I shall soon have occasion to advert to by Trolliet.

more minutely, while he has no doubt of its occasional spontaneous origin, limits its appearance in this form to the dog, the wolf, the fox, and the cat, believing that all other animals only receive it from the one or the other of

these by inoculation *. Yet in most Nevertheless, whilst we are thus establishing that the animals a

symptoms of rabies are dependent upon a specific virus, it wound in flicted dur- may not be foreign to remark that most animals, when

aroused to a high degree of rage, inflict a wound of a much more irritable much more irritable kind than when in a state of tran

ng quillity: and we have numerous examples in which such tranquillity: 9

ich wound has been very difficult of cure, and not a few in some pecu- which it has proved fatal ; as though at all times, under liar acrimony were se

such a state of excitement, some peculiar acrimony was creted. secreted with the saliva. In the Ephemera of Natural Exemplified Curiosities, is an example of symptoms of hydrophobia or in other animals. water-dread, produced by the bite of a man worked up

into furyt ; and in the Leipsic Acta Eruditorum is another instance of the same kind, though neither of them seem to have been fatal. Meekrens, however, Wolff),

than

as

* Noveau Traité de la Rage, Observations Cliniques, Recherches d'Ana. tomie Pathologique, et Doctrine de cette Maladie. 8vo. Lyon. 1820.

† Ann. IX. X. App. p. 249. #. Ann. 1702. p. 147. $ Obsery. Cap. LXVII.

# Obsery. Med. Chir. Lib. 11. N. 5.

Entasia

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but without

accredited

Pec

and Zacutus Lusitanus* have each an instance of such a Gen. I. bite terminating in death, yet without hydrophobia. Le

Spec. VIII. Cat gives a case of death produced by the bite of an en- Lyssa. raged duckt; and in a German miscellany of deserved kab repute we have another of the same kind 1. The in- In which it stances, indeed, are innumerable ; but it may be sufficient

ont proved fatal to observe further that Thiermayer gives us two cases, hydrophoone in which the bite of a hen, and another in which that bia. of a goose proved fatal on or about the third day, without hydrophobia : and that Camerarius has an instance of These stateepilepsy produced by the bite of a horsell.

ments to be Marvellous as these facts may appear, it is more con- rather than sistent with reason to accredit them than to impugn the

impugned.

Hence rage host of authorities to whose testimony they appeal. And h it hence seems to follow that the passion of rage, whose liar inilu

ence on the influence is always considerable on the trachea and sali- salivary vary glands, has often a power of stimulating the one or glands, and

excites the other of them, among most animals, to the secretion of secretion of an acrimonious and malignant virus with which the saliva an acrimo

nious virus. becomes tainted.

But the Rabies, however, has sufficiently shown itself to be de- virus of pendent upon a peculiar virus, and capable of producing ra

in rabies is pe

"8 culiar to specific effects; to be sometimes originated, and sometimes itself. received by communication. Now the only animals which The only have hitherto been ascertained to have a power of origin

animals ating it are, as just observed, several species of the genus originate it canis, as the dog, fox, and wolf, and one species of the a genus felis, which is the domestic cat; it is probable, feline kinds,

though prohowever, there are others belonging to different classes endowed with a like power; and some writers have at power be

longs to tempted to bring instances from the horse, mule, ass, ox, and hog, yet they are not instances to be depended upon. Man assertIn like manner, Plater, Doppert, and even Sauvages him- ed to have self, have asserted the same of mankind, and have brought power: but forward a few casual cases in support of such assertion. the cases

alluded to

are those of • Prax. Admir. Lib. 111. Obs. 84. 88. + Recueil Periodique, II. p. 90. cited pasa

strongly exSamml. Med. Wahrnehm. B. II. p. 98.

sions in an In Goekelü Consil. et Obs. N. 19. | Diss. de Epileps. freq. p. 15. irritable VOL. IV.

B B

known to

of the canine and

others.

a like

habit.

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