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most ad

pitation of

the retina ; and to this mode of operation is given the

Spec. IX. name of RECLINATION.

Paropsis The operation of extraction seems to have derived no Catarracta.

Cataract. small improvement from the method of Sir William Sato

Method of Adams, who, after detaching the cataract, first passes it extraction through the opening of the pupil into the interior cham- improved

by Adams: ber by means of his needle, and then extracts it by an and how. opening on the outer side of the cornea, instead of by one in its interior part. The simplest and least irritating of these operations, Method of

absorption however, is that by absorption, as it is now commonly called, as it was named precipitation by Maître-jan*, on

viseable :

and why. his first noticing the disappearance of portions of the opake lens; but which in effect is neither absorption nor

hention na The preciprecipitation, but solution, or dissolution, as Mr. Pott Maître Jan. correctly described it. But it should be known to the Solvent operator that while the solvent power of the aqueous the aqueous

power of humour is wonderfully active, that of the vitreous is weak humour and inconsiderable: and hence the solvent or absorbent ac

highly plan, first practised by Buchhorn, and since in our own that of the country by Sir William Adams, consists in dividing the humour cataract, after its separation, into small fragments, and weak. passing them with the needle by which they are thus Principle of

this method divided, through the pupil into the anterior chamber, as practised which constitutes the seat of the aqueous humour, appar- by Adams. ently in perfect coincidence with the method first practised by Gleize, and since recommended by Richtert. The ca

sometimes fragments thus deposited are usually dissolved in a few very rapid.. weeks; and where the cataract is fluid they have often

have been and carried been dissolved and absorbed in a few seconds; and some- off. times even before the needle has been withdrawn. The division is here made through the cornea, previously illined with belladonna to dilate the pupil, and it is to this method of operating that M. Buchhorn gave the name of CERATONYXIS I. The first inventor, however, of the Ceratonyxis. plan in its simplest state was Conradi of Nordheim.




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* Traité des Maladies de l'Oeil. Edit. sec. Troyes, 1711. † Chirurgische Bibliothek. Band. x. | Buchhorn de Keratonvxide. Halád, 1906,



Closed pupil.




Gen. I. The term SYNIZESIS is derived from ouvísw, “ consido

Spec. X. coëo, coalesco"; and was used among the Greek gramOrigin of the specific

marians, before it obtained an introduction into the medi-
cal vocabulary, to signify the coalescence of two or more
syllables into one. This species exhibits two varieties :
a Simplex.

Simple closure of the
Simple closed pupil.

pupil. B Complicata.

Closure of the pupil comComplicated closed pupil. plicated with cataract,

or opake cornea. a P. Syni- The pupil becomes closed or obliterated from a grazesis sim- dual contraction and, at length, coalition of the muscular plex. Simple fibres of the iris ; from inflammation of the surrounding closed pupil. membranes; or from protrusion of the iris. In all these

cases it is a SIMPLE OBLITERATION OF THE PUPIL. It is A P. Syni. COMPLICATED when the obliteration is combined with an lima- opacity of the cornea, or with a cataract. When the disease Complicated is an effect of inflammation, it forms the ATRESIA IRIDIS closed pupil. of Dr. Schmidt of Vienna, who further subdivides it into Atresia iris dis of complete, incomplete, and partial, according as the vision Schmidt. is totally destroyed, impaired, or confined to a part of the

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Form of the The natural form of the human pupil is circular, this pupil chang. being the natural form of the fine fringe of the iris by ed by the disease.

* Ueber Nachstaar und Iritis Nachstaar operationen. 4tu. Wien. 1801.



which it is surrounded. But in a very few instances the Gen. I. fringe, or rays, of the iris has evinced a different figure, & P. Synia

Spec. X. and the pupil, in consequence, has been found oblong, or zesis comheart-shaped *.

plicata. The first has occurred most frequently: Complicated and according to Albinus has sometimes preceded loss of closed pupil. vision f. Block gives an instance in which the disease

- Has been

isease found conwas congenital and hereditary I.

genital and If the iris contract irregularly, sometimes only a few of here its fibres spread across the pupil, while others are retracted: and hence we have examples of double or more than Double double pupils, though of smaller dimensions than the na- PPI

produced. tural circle. Solinus gives an instance of two pupils hereby produced 8, and Janin of not less than fivell. Dr. Pupil five Plenck, who very unnecessarily multiplies diseases, confines the term synizesis to a total contraction of the pupil; and makes its partial contraction a distinct affection, which he calls myósis : and the second or complicated Complicated variety, another distinct affection which he denominates

closed pupil. synechia. But this is to perplex rather than to simplify Plenck.

Synechia, the subject.

what. Medicines in this disease are of little avail. In the Medical first variety an external application of the tincture of treatment

of the first belladonna, or a solution of stramonium, which is said to Varie answer the same purpose I, has occasionally effected a cure by destroying the contractile action; and dilute solutions of brandy, camphor, or sulphate of zinc, by their tonic or stimulant power. When the disease does not The second yield to this mode of treatment, or consists of the com

to surgery. plicated variety, it belongs manifestly to the art of surgery, and its removal must be sought for in books on that subject: among the best of which may be mentioned, Mr. Guthrie's Lectures on the Eye lately published, and Professor Beer's Essay on Staphyloma, and artificial pupil,


* Eph. Nat. Cur. Dec. 111. Ann. vii. viu. Obs. 21. + Anat. Acad. Lib. vi. cap. 3. Medicinische Bermerkungen, p. 1. § Vide Marcel. Donat. Lib. vi. cap. ii. p. 619. Memoires, &c.

4 Annual Report of the Liverpool Institution for Diseases of the Eye. By Alexander Hannay, M. D. 1822.


Gen. I. published in 1804 *, and his Doctrine of 'the Diseases of Spec. X. 6 P. Syni- the Eye published in 1817 t. According to the nature zesis com- of the coalition, Beer employs three varieties of operation,

icated incision, excision, and separation, which he distinguishes closed pupil. by the names of corotoMIA, CORECTOMIA, and CORODIACorotomia, Lysis. The first is the simplest, and that most usually had corectomia, corodialysis. recourse to. In the second, an incision being made with a

cataract knife, close to the edge of the cornea, and not larger than the third part of its circumference, the iris, if it protrude, is laid hold of by the hook; or if no protrusion take place, the hook introduced through the incision, is made to lay hold of the pupillary edge of the iris, which

drags. it through the wound when a sufficient portion of The last, it is removed by a pair of scissors. In the third method, Reisinger's method.

" which is that formerly proposed by Dr. Reisinger, the

operation is performed by a double hook or hook forceps ..

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Gen. I. This is the GUTTA SERENA of the Arabic writers, whence Spec. X1. the term “ Drop Serene” of our own tongue; terms we The gutta serena of the


• Amicht der Staphylomatoien Metamorphosen des Anges, und der Künstlichen Pupillen bildung. + Lehre von der Augenkrankheiter, &c. ut suprà.

See also D. Weller's Treatise Ueber künstliche Pupillen, und eine besondere Methode, diese fertigen ; published in Langenbeck's Neue Bibliothek. B. 11. St. 4. Sce also Dr. Schlagintweit Ueber den gagenwärtigen Zustand der künstlichen Pupillenbildung, &c. München 1818.


ract or suf.

have already explained under PAROPSIS CATARRACTA. Gen. I,

Spec. XI. Milton is well known to allude to this affection in his Paropsis beautiful address to light, as he does also to the cataract Amaurosis.

Drop serene. by him called suffusion, as the Latins call it suffusio: C but it is singular that, in the course of this allusion, he by Milton seems doubtful as to which of the two diseases he ought

with cata. to ascribe his own blindness :

Thee I revisit safe
And feel thy sovereign vital lamp; but thou
Revisit'st not these eyes, that roll in vain
To find thy piercing ray, and find no dawn.
So thick a DROP SERENE has quench'd their orbs,

Or dim suFFUSION veil'd*. • The term AMAUROSIS is derived from the Greek Origin of

the specific åpaupòs, “ obscurus, caliginosus, opacus”. The most term. common cause is a paralysis of the retina, usually in con- Ordinary

cause. junction with a paralysis and dilatation of the iris. Occasionally, however, the iris is rigidly contracted; its debility being accompanied with great irritability; and hence, offering two varieties; to which a third may be added, from the disease assuming, at times, an intermittent type. a Atonica.

With permanent atony, and · Atonic amaurosis.

dilatation of the pupil. B Spasmodica.

With a permanent contrac· Spasmodic amaurosis. tion of the pupil. ✓ Intermittens.

With periodical cessations · Intermittent amaurosis. and returns. . It would be easy to admit other varieties if we were to Other mo

difications attend to all that has been written on the subject, and

uvject, and noticed by adopt all the opinions that have been delivered ; for we some

writers; are told of cases in which the pupil has not been permanently immoveable, but has contracted on exposure to an intense light t; and of others in which the pupil instead of being black has evinced a pale or nebulous appear

* Par. Lost, 111. 21.

+ Caldani ad Haller. v. Richter, Nov. Comm. Soc. Goett. Tom. IV. 77. Hey, Medic. Observ. and Inquir. Vol. 5. p. 1.

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