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it with success upon an extensive field of practice*. Gen. I. Gleize employed it with equal success alone t, and Hufe

Spec. VII. land as satisfactorily in combination with warm bathing, Caligo. and the internal use of millepedes I: the last of which, .

ich Opake however, may be spared without any serious risk. The disease has sometimes disappeared spontaneously, or without any known cause.

Where the disease has become permanent, it may be How distindistinguished from a cataract, and hence a useless operation be avoided, by a greenish hue of the iris if previously ract. blue or grey, or a reddish, if previously brown. The iris, moreover remains immoveable, as the debility has now extended to itself, and from an irregular contraction of its fringe, the pupil acquires a broken, and for the most part angular or elliptic shape. In newly-born infants spots on the cornea are occa- Spots on

the cornea sionally met with, which soon vanish spontaneously : ofen probably the rays of light acting as a salutary stimulus

soon vanish, upon the occasion.

and why.

iable cata



born infants :



Humoral Opacity.



Glaucosis is a Greek term from yaauròs, “ blueish or Gen. I. greenish-tinted," from the common colour of the obscu- Spe

Spec. VIII. rity. It was also called by the Greeks glaucoma, and name, its by the Romans glaucédo. Glaucosis is here preferred to germination.


• On the Principal Diseases of the Eyes.
† Nouvelles Observations, &c. Von Blathern. p. 159.
§ Farr. Med. Commun. 11. 30.


Gen. I., glaucoma, because the final oma imports usually, and, Spec. VIII. Paropsis for the sake of simplicity and consistency, ought always Glaucosis. to import, external protuberance, as in staphyloma, sarHumoral opacity.

coma, and various others noticed in detail in the volume

of Nosology. Probable This species is probably produced in most instances by proximate

a torpitude of action in the absorbents that carry off the waste fluid of the humours, similar to that described

under the last species; and is sometimes benefited by a Caligo of like stimulant and tonic plan of treatment. Sennert calls Sennert.

it indeed a calígo, and distinguishes it by its proceeding from a defect of the aqueous humour-calígo à defectu humoris aquei ; by which he seems to mean that the torpitude belongs rather to the excretory than the absorbent vessels; but, in this case, the cornea would appear de

pressed or flattened, which is rarely if ever a symptom. Glaucoma Mr. Guthrie has united the two diseases in the same of Guthrie.

manner as Sennert, describing both under the name of Glaucoma, which he defines “ an alteration of the component parts of the vitreous humour, accompanied by derangement of structure of the hyaloid membrane of the retina, and tunica choroidea, the vessels of which are

always more or less in a varicose state.” * Carried off Both this and the preceding species have sometimes

ceased spontaneously t, without any apparent cause ; ously or by a fever. and Helwig # gives an instance in which the cessation was

not only spontaneous but sudden. They have also been How distin- carried off by fever. In the caligo there is often a sense guishable of fulness, stiffness, or other uneasiness, and occasionally from caligo.

Se of pain. In the present affection little disquiet of any

kind is complained of. Collyriums of the astringent minerals or metallic earths, or other stimulants are often serviceable, when persevered in g.



• Lectures on the operative Surgery of the Eye, p. 214.

+ Hagendorn, Observ. Med. Cent. 1. Obs. 56. Franc. 1698, 8vo. Eph. Nat. Cur. Dec. 1. Art. 11. Obs. 166.

Obs. 23. $ Collezione d' Osservazioni e Riflessioni di Chirurgia di Giuseppe Flajani, Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia, &c. Tomi iv, Roma, 1803.




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The cataract as it is now called, was by old English Gen. I. writers named PEARL-EYE Or PEARL IN THE EYE, and is

io Spec. IX.

The pearlso denominated by Holland, the faithful translator of eye of old Pliny. Catarracta, as a Greek term, is usually derived English

writers. from natappárow, “ to disturb, destroy, or abolish”. καταρράκτης Or καταράκτης, however, was employed by whence dethe Greek writers themselves to signify a gate, door, or rived. loop-hole, and the bar which fastens it, and becomes the Primary

meaning of impediment to its being opened. And it is probably the term. from this last sense that the term cataract was first applied to the disease in question, as forming a bar to the eyes which were called the loop-holes or windows of the mind by various philosophers, as we learn from Lucretius, who thus closes his opposition to their view:

Dicere porro oculos nullam rem cernere posse,
Sed per eos animum ut foribus spectare reclusis
Difficile est *.
To deem the eyes, then, of themselves survey
Nought in existence, while th' interior mind
Looks at all nature through them, as alone,

Through windows, is to trifle
Whence, perhaps, Shakspeare in the speech of Rich-
mond :-

To thee I do commend my wakeful soul
Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes.

* De Rer. Nat. mu. 360.



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common Arabian term was


Gen. I. The Greeks themselves, however, called this disease Spec. IX. :

indifferently hypochyma, apochysis, and hypochysis. The Catarracta. earlier Latins, suffusio: while catarracta seems first to have Cataract.

been made use of by the Arabian writers, and was proCalled by the Greeks bably introduced into the medical nomenclature by Avihypochyma, cenna. Yet the more common name among the Arabians apochysis, and hypo- was gutta obscura, as that for amaurosis was gutta sechysis.

rena; the pupil, in this last species, being serene or Cataracta probably

transparent. first used by The Arabians, who had adopted generally the huAvicenna :

ai moral pathology of Galen, conceived both these diseases though the

to be the result of a morbid rheum or defluxion falling on

a particular part of the visual orb, in the one case progutta ob ducing blindness with obscurity, whence the name of an

obscure rheum or gutta ; and in the other without obOrigin and

scurity, whence the contrary name of a transparent or meaning of gutta obe serene rheum or gutta. But as various other diseases,

and particularly of the joints, were also supposed to flow from a like cause, and were far more common, the terms gutta and rheuma were afterwards emphatically applied, and at length altogether limited, to these last complaints: whence the terms gout and rheumatism which have descended to the present day, as the author has already had occasion to observe under ARTHRODIA PODAGRA. For gutta the Arabian writers sometimes employed aqua; and hence, cataract and amaurosis are described by many of them under the names of aqua obscura, and aqua serena; and the former, by way of emphasis, sometimes under the name of aqua or arqua alone. For gutta

obscura the modern Germans have revived the terms Onyx and ONYX and CERATONYX where the lens is peculiarly hard ceratonyx of

or horny * Germans. The opacity producing a cataract may exist in the lens

alone, the capsule alone, or in both ; thus laying a foundation for the three following varieties :

scura and gutta serena.


• See Langenbeck's Prufung der Keratonyxis, einer nener Methode, &c. Götting. 1811, 8vo.


& Lenticularis.

The opacity existing in the lens Gen. I. Lenticular Cataract.

SPEC. IX. itself, and confined to it.

Paropsis B Capsularis.

The opacity confined to the Catarracta. Capsular or membra- capsule, or membrane of the nous Cataract.

lens. q Complicata.

The opacity common to the Complicated Cataract. lens and its capsule. We are told moreover by Richter* of a cataract of Cataract of

the humour the humour of Morgagni, or the interstitial fluid which of Morlies between the capsule and the lens: whence this has gagni, what. also been copied by Plenck, Professor Beer, and Sir William Adams into the list of modifications ; but rather as a possible than an actual case ; for none of these practitioners give a single example of such a variety ever having occurred to them with certainty, though Beer suspected it in one caset. It is sometimes accompanied with a sac inclosing a Someti

accompani. small body of pus or ichor, and is probably the result of the ed with a inflammation that produced it. In this case it forms the sac, con

taining pus, cataracta capsulo-lenticularis cum bursa ichorem conti- and particunente of Schmidt $. Beer affirms that this sac is commonly lari

Y by Schmidt. seated between the lens and posterior part of the capsule, Beer and very rarely between the former and the anterior part $. of the sao. Professor Beer seems to have refined a little too much Multipli

cated subdiin his divisions and subdivisions of cataract, for he not visions of only assigns a distinct place to the Morgagnian, and this Beer ; pustular cystic, but to a cystic form without pus, to a siliquose, and a trabecular; while he further partitions the capsular into two separate forms, according as it is before or behind in the capsular chamber ; thus giving,

being nine us a catalogue of nine distinct forms of what he calls the for his true, true cataract; while he allots four other subdivisions to and four for

his spurious what he denominates the spurious cataract: meaning cataract, hereby some other obstacle to vision, the seat of which is



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• Von der Ausziehung des grauen Staars. Gött. 1773. 8vo. + Lehre von den Augenkrankheiter, Band 11. Sect. 56.

Ueber Nachstaar und Iritis, &c. Wien 1801. & Lehre von der Augenkrankheiter, Band Il. p. 301. 1813.

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