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finished.” The soldier, surprised at his unconcern at a Gen. IV.

Spec. II. time of such extreme peril, resolved to carry him before B A. intenta Marcellus; but as the philosopher put under his arm a à studio. small box full of spheres, dials, and other instruments, from inthe soldier, conceiving the box to be filled with gold, tense study. could not resist the temptation, and killed him on the spot.

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SPECIES III.

APHELXIA OTIOSA.

Brown-study.

LEISURELY LISTLESSNESS; VOLUNTARY SURRENDER OF

THE ATTENTION AND THE JUDGEMENT TO THE SPOR-
TIVE VAGARIES OF THE IMAGINATION: QUIESCENT
MUSCLES; IDLE GRAVITY OF COUNTENANCE.

The atten

the w

cent.

he exter

The attention is equally summoned into action, and dis- Gen. IV.

SPEC. III. missed at the command of the wil!. It is summoned in my the last species ; it is dismissed when a man voluntarily tion here

allowed by surrenders himself to ease and listlessness of mind; during which period, moreover, in consequence of this indul- be quiesgence in general indolence, the external senses themselves

Other reaunite in the mental quiescence, and a smaller portion of sons why nervous fluid is probably secreted for the very reason that

nal senses a smaller portion is demanded ; and hence the active are vacant senses without are as vacant and unstrung as the active senses within, and as blunted to their respective stimuli. The first playful ideas that float over the fancy in this case take the lead, and the mind relaxes itself with their easy and sportive flow. It is the studium inane of Dar- Studium win*, who seems, however, to have in some degree mis inane of

Darwin : adapplied the name, or to have confounded the aberration mirably de

scribed by

Cowper. * Zoonom. IuI. 1. ii. 2. and again iv. 11. iv. 2.

in this

species.

otiosa.

Gen. IV. with that of ecphronia or alusia. Cowper has admirably

Spec. lll. described it in the following verses : Aphelxia

Laugh ye who boast your more mercurial powers, Brown

That never feel a stupor, know no pause, study.

Nor need one; I am conscious, and confess,
Fearless, a soul that does not always think.
Me, oft, has fancy ludicrous and wild,
Sooth'd with a waking dream of houses, towers,
Trees, churches, and strange visages, express'd
In the red cinders, while with poring eye
I gazed, myself creating what I saw.
Nor less amused have I quiescent watch'd
The sooty films that play upon the bars
Pendulous, and foreboding in the view
Of superstition, prophesying still,
Though still deceived, some stranger's near approach.
'Tis thus the understanding takes repose
In indolent vacuity of thought,
And sleeps, and is refresh’d. Meanwhile the face
Conceals the mood lethargic with a mask
Of deep deliberation, as the man

Were task'd to his full strength, absorb’d, and lost. With the In the indolent mind such indulgence is a disease, and, indolent if not studiously watched and opposed, will easily become such indulgence a a habit. In the studious and active mind it is a wholedisease:

some relaxation ; the sensory, in the correct language of with the Studious a the poet“ sleeps and is refreshed”, grows fertile beneath wholesome the salutary fallow and prepares itself for new harvests. relaxation :

This is more particularly the case where, in conjunction Especially where the with an attention “screwed up to the sticking place”, and attention is long continued there, a spirit of ardent emulation is at the spurred on by a spirit same time stirring, and distracted between the hope and of rivalry fear of gaining or losing a distinguished honour or reward. as well as by the will. I have seen this repeatedly in young men who have been Illustrated. striving night and day, and week after week, for the first

prizes of our English universities; some of whom have indeed succeeded, but with a hectic exhaustion that has been recovered from with great difficulty; while others, in the full prospect of success, have been compelled to relinquish the pursuit, and to degrade.

Yet even without this conflict of feeling, where the simple at

Even

SPEC. III.

directed to

fied.

attention alone has been too long directed to one or to a Gen. IV. variety of recondite subjects without relaxation, the mind

Aphelxia suffers considerably, and its powers become shaken and otiosa.

Brownconfused; of which we have an interesting example in

study. the case of Mr. Spalding, a scholar of considerable tention long eminence in Germany, as drawn by himself and com

mental purmunicated to the editors of the Psycological Magazine*. suits occaHis attention, he tells us, had been long kept upon the si

n the sionally

produces stretch, and had been still more distracted by being con- confusion. tinually shifted from one subject to another, when being Exemplicalled upon to write a receipt for money paid him on account of the poor, as soon as he had written the two first words, he found himself incapable of proceeding farther. He strove all he could, and strained his attention to the utmost, but to no purpose : he knew the characters he continued to make were not those he wished to write, but could not discover where the fault lay. He then desisted, and partly by broken words and syllables, and partly by gestures, made the person who waited for the receipt, understand that he should leave him. For about half an hour, a tumultuary disorder reigned in his senses, so that he was incapable of remarking any thing very particular, except that one series of ideas of a trifling nature, and confusedly intermixed, forced themselves involuntarily on his mind. At the same time his external senses continued perfect, and he saw and knew every thing around him. His speech, however, failed in the same manner as his power of writing, and he perceived that he spoke other words than those he intended. In less than an hour he recovered himself from this confusion, and felt nothing but a slight head-ache. On examining the receipt on which the aberration first betrayed itself, be found that, instead of the words “fifty dollars, being one half year's rate”, he had written "fifty dollars, through the salvation of Bra—" the last word being left unfinished, and without his having the least recollection of what it was intended to be.

* Crichton's Inquiry into Mental Derangement, s. 237.

GENUS V.

PARONIRIA.

Sleep-disturbance.

THE VOLUNTARY ORGANS CONNECTED WITH THE PASS

ING TRAIN OF IDEAS, OVERPOWERED BY THE FORCE
OF THE IMAGINATION DURING DREAMING, AND IN-
VOLUNTARILY EXCITED TO THEIR NATURAL OR AC-
CUSTOMED ACTIONS; WHILE THE OTHER ORGANS RE-
MAIN ASLEEP.

term.

Gen. V. PARONIRIA, from napà and õverpov, signifies, “ depraved, the generic

e disturbed, or morbid, dreaming." So in Dioscorides *,

duoóveipos, signifies, “ tumultuosis et malis somniis mo

lestans." Essential in treating of the genus EPHIALTES, or night-maret, I distinction

ion endeavoured to explain its course and nature; and hereby between ephialtes or pointed out the essential distinction which exists between

that disease and the present, and the impropriety of unitand the present species: ing the species which belong to both of them under one hence erro- head, as Dr. Cullen has done in his genus oneirodynia, united by

since, with the exception of their occurring in the night Cullen. and during sleep, and therefore involuntarily, they have

little or no connexion or resemblance in cause, symptoms, or even mode of cure.

The three following species are so clearly and decidedly of one and the same family, as to prevent all dispute in

neously

* Vol. 11. p. 127.

+ Vol. I. Ord. 11. Gen. v.

turbance.

hints subser.

of the b and mind.

their present position. They are here, however, associated Gen. V.

Paroniria. for the first time in a genus distinct from ephialtes.

Sleep-dis1. PARONIRIA AMBULANS. SLEEP-WALKING

These affec2. LOQUENS. SLEEP-TALKING. tions only to

be fully un3. SALAX. NIGHT-POLLUTION.

derstood by

a knowledge The nature of these singular affections, and the means of the phyby which they are produced, have never yet been explain- si

do sleep and ed, and rarely, so far as I know, has any explanation been dreaming.

General attempted. To understand them fully, it would be necessary for us to enter into a minute developement of the .vient to a physiology of sleep and dreaming, which the limits of the me present work will not allow. On some future occasion the these states author may, perhaps, follow it up into such a detail : but a few general remarks must suffice for the occasion before us. Many of the

faculties of In sleep, accompanied with dreaming, the faculties of the mind as the mind bear a pretty close parallel with those of the well as of

the body at body as to the effect produced upon them. Some of them, this time as the will, the perception, the judgement, are in a state torpid :

others in of general torpitude, like the voluntary organs of the a state of body; while the memory and the imagination, like the activity:

Hence the vital or involuntary organs of the body, are in as high sensor activity as ever. The sensory is hence as much crowded crowded with

ideas wantwith ideas as at any time; but, destitute of a controlling ing the conpower, they rush forward with a very considerable degree trol of the of irregularity, and would do so with the most unshape- Whence the able confusion, but that the habit of association still re- ideas pre

serve some tains some degree of influence, and produces some degree sort of cateof consonance and proportion in the midst of the wildest nation in

dreaming : and most extravagant vagaries. And hence that infinite variety that takes place in the character of our dreams ;

sometimes

more and and the greater regularity of some, and the greater ir sometimes regularity of others. Hence a combination of thoughts or

less regular

Dreaming ideas sometimes only in a small degree incongruous, and ideas someat other times most frantic and heterogeneous ; occasion- ti

vivid and ally, indeed, so fearful and extravagant as to stimulate the wild as to external senses themselves into a sudden renewal of their stimul

senses and functions, and consequently to break off abruptly the sleep rouse them into which they were thrown.

abruptly from sleep.

will.

and are

times so

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