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most severe.

times, and especially among the Swiss, when their man- Gen. II.

Spec. II. ners were simpler, and their domestic virtues and feelings much stronger than they seem to have been of late cum Desiyears, produced not only a permanent melancholy but endo hectic fever. Yet it is to the third that our attention is able longing

or love. chiefly called on the present occasion, from the greater frequency of its occurrence and the severer and more tragic effects to which it has led, where obstacles have quent and arisen in its progress.

We have, on the present occasion, nothing whatever Present to do with the gross passion of concupiscence, which is emotion of

love totally as different from that of pure and genuine love as light distinct from darkness. The man of lust has indeed his love, but from gross

concupisa it is a love that centres in himself and seeks alone his cence own gratification; while the passion we are now speaking of puts self completely out of the field, and would voluntarily submit to every pain, and sacrifice even life itself, in promoting the happiness of the beloved object. Yet, constituted as we are by nature for the wisest though inand best of purposes, a pure corporeal orgasm still enweaves itself with the sentimental desire, though subor- corporeal dinate to it in virtuous minds, and the flame is fed from orgas a double source. “ Nuptial love," says Lord Bacon, “maketh mankind; friendly love perfecteth it: but wanton love corrupteth and embaseth it"*. What it is that first lights up this flame is of no im- Origin of

the emoportance to the present subject. A peculiar cast of form tid or of features acknowledged by all to be moulded accord- importance : ing to the finest laws of symmetry, and productive of a for the high degree of external grace or beauty; or a figure or a manner that to the eye of the enamoured beholder gives overpower

ed, whattoken of a mind adorned with all he can wish for; or an

ever the actual knowledge, from long acquaintance, of the exist- immediate

cause of ence of such internal cultivation and excellence, may be

excitement. equally causes of the same common effect. And hence The exthis is of little or no account; for the passion being once cited feel

ings give excited, the judgement runs a risk of being overpowered rise to ro

mantic

ideas of • Essays, No. x.

the imagi, VOL. IV.

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by its warmth and violence; and the moment it is over« E. atoni- powered, the new train of ideas that are let loose upon the cum Desi- mind are of a romantic character; and as soon as any Ungovern- obstacle starts up as a barrier in the vista of hope, instead

eging of being damped or repressed, they grow wilder and more or love.

tion : by vivid, till at length the sensorial system is worn out by obstacles the vehemence of its labour ; and though the excitement is growing and really less than at first, because there is less vascular vi.

gour for its support, it is still greater than ever compared sionary:

with the weakened state of the sentient organ. whence the mind led Yet love-sickness itself, whatever mischief it may work the body

in the corporeal frame, by sleepless nights, a feverish exhausted pulse, and loss of appetite *, and however, from the exThough a alted state of the imagination, and the increased sensifebrile state follows, it

bility of the body, it may transpose the reality of life into rarely leads a kind of visionary existence, and so far produce mental to insanity, while a y derangement, rarely leads to direct insanity, so long as hope of at- there is the remotest hope of the attainment of its object. taining the desired ob- But if hope be suddenly cut off by an inexorable refusal, ject re

the intervention of a more fortunate rival, the concealmains.

ment of the object of adoration, or any other cause whatthis state of ever, the mind is sometimes incapable of resisting the

ent shock thus produced by the concurrent yet opposite pow. all hope be suddenly ers of desire and despair; and in a moment in which the cut off,

judgement is completely overwhelmed, the love-sick ten follows, maniac calls to his aid the demoniacal passion of revenge, and some

and, almost at hazard, determines upon a plan of murder cide or directed against his rival, his mistress, or himself. The other

story of Mr. Hackman and Miss Rae will at once, per

haps, occur to the recollection of most of the author's readExempli

ers in proof of this assertion. He himself had some acfied.

quaintance with the former; and is convinced from what he knew of him that nothing but a paroxysm of insanity

could have urged him to so horrible an act. BE. atoni

The operation of the passion of AVARICE when it has cum Auri famis. Ungovernable ava

But if in

excitement

times sui

murder.

Schurig. Gyneaolog. p. 94.
Horstius, An Pulsus aliquis amatorius concedendus?
Bilizer, De Natura Amoris, Gioss, 1611. 4to.

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once obtained an ascendancy over the mind is altogether Gen. II.

Spec. II. of a different nature from that of the preceding variety, Es though it often produces a wider and more chronic alie- cum Auri

famis. nation. It has not a stirring property of any kind be- 0 longing to it; but benumbs and chills every energy of able avathe body as well as of the soul, like the stream of Lethe;

The emoeven the imagination is rendered cold and stagnant; and tion altothe only passions with which it forms a confederacy are gether op

posed to the miserable train of gloomy fear, suspicion, and anxiety. the preThe body grows thin in the midst of wealth, the limbs ceding. totter though surrounded by cordials, and the man volun- Descriptarily starves himself in the granary of plenty, not from a want of appetite, but from a dread of giving way to it. The individual who is in such a state of mind must be estranged upon this point, how much soever he may be at home upon others. Yet these are cases that are daily occurring, and have been in all ages: though perhaps one of the most curious is that related by Valerius Maxi. Singular mus of a miser who took advantage of a famine to sell a esa mouse for two hundred pence, and then famished himself with the money in his pocket *. And hence the madness of the covetous man has been a subject of sarcasm and ridicule by moralists and dramatic writers in every period, of which we have sufficient examples in the writings of Aristophanes, Lucian, and Moliere.

There is another mental feeling of a very afflictive, and we atonia too often, like the last, of a chronic kind, which is fre- tatis. quently found to usurp a dominion over the judgement,

able anxiety. and to imbitter life with false and visionary ideas, and that is a habit of ANXIETY or PREYING CARE ; which not only drives the individual who possesses it mad, but runs the risk of doing the same to all who are about him, and are harassed with his complaints and discontents. This is sometimes the effect of a long succession of mis- Occasional fortunes or vexatious troubles ; but seems in some per- cau sons to depend on a very high degree of nervous sensibility, united with a choleric or melancholic tempera

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Gen. II. ment. Their age, wealth, or situation in life is of no imSPEC. II.

portance, and though their digestive powers are good, and y E. atonicum Anxie- they are not hypochondriacs, they are always apprehen

na sive and full of alarm, and flee from every appearance of able anxiety. joy as they would from an apparition, or even sooner. In Description. the language of Butler, who knew too well how to describe

them, “ The old are full of aches in their bones, croups and convulsions ; dull of hearing, weak-sighted, hoary, wrinkled, harsh, so much so that they cannot know their own selves in a glass, a burthen to themselves and others. If they be sound they fear diseases ; if sick weary of their lives. One complains of want, a second of servitude, another of a secret or incurable disease, of some deformity of body, of some loss, danger, death of friends, shipwreck, persecution, imprisonment, disgrace, repulse, contumely, calumny, abuse, injury, contempt, ingratitude, unkindness, scoffs, scouts, unfortunate marriage, single life, too many children, no children, false servants, unhappy children, barrenness, banishment, oppression, frustrate hopes, ill success;

Cætera de genere hoc, adeo sunt multa, loquacem,
Delassare valent Fabium.

ris.

“ In the mean time," continues the younger Democritus, “ thus much I may say of them, that generally they crucify the soul of man, attenuate our bodies, dry them, wither them, rivel them up like old apples, and make them

as so many anatomies”*. d E. atoni- Nothing can be more different than this constitutional cum Mero

pining, and the pains produced by HEART-ACHE or the Ungovern- reality of severe grief. The former is talkative and queable heart

arv rulous ; the latter is dumb and flies from company. The Contrasted sensorial exhaustion is so considerable that the mind, with with queru. its attention upon the full stretch, has scarcely strength

enough to collect the train of ideas on which alone it resolves to dwell; and hence all conversation is irksome, the presence of a friend disquieting, and the deepest so

ache.

* Anat. of Melancholy, Part 1. Sect. 11. Subs. X.

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litude is anxiously sought for. And not unfrequently the Gex. II. discharge of nervous power is so considerable and sudden , as to produce a general torpor of the brain; which, if it do cum Mæronot happily terminate in quiet sleep, is the inlet of apo- t plesy. Even in the former case the inirritability of the able heart

ache. nervous fibres continues to such an excess that the sufferer

Description. has no natural evacuation for perhaps several days, feels no hunger, cannot be persuaded to take food, is incapable leads to of sighing and sheds no tears. And hence the appearance apople

and how : of tears and sighing are good omens, and are correctly re- often to garded as such; since they show that the general torpitude

ac real evils. is giving way in the organs that most associate with this Tears and painful emotion of the mind to a slight return of irrita- sighs a good

omen, and bility. As soon as the flow of the sensorial principle is a why. little increased the præcordia struggle with great anxiety, and the heart is overloaded and feels ready to break or burst, whence the name of HEART-ACHE, so appropriately applied to this variety of suffering. Sometimes, also, hys- Yet some

times conteric flatulency oppresses the respiration, and convul- vulsions ensions, and, not unfrequently, death itself ensues. Of this sue and

death itself. last effect Erndtl has given numerous instances*. But if į recovery should take place it is usually long before the recovery.

the mind is judgement re-assumes its proper sway in the mind, and the lo temporary derangement altogether ceases. At times, in- it resumes deed, this never returns, and the pitiable sufferer only and son lives through the shock to endure the severer evil of con- times never.

Finely exfirmed insanity: of which Shakspeare has given us an ad- emplified mirable copy in the character of King Lear finely imagined in King to be a result of filial ingratitude. DESPAir makes a near approach to heart-ache in the E. atoni

cum Despeoverwhelming agony it produces, and its pressing desire rationis. of gloom and solitude, but, generally speaking, the feeling Ungovern

able deis more selfish, and the mind more hurried, and daring. spondency. Despair, as it commonly shows itself, is utter hopelessness Despair how

e distinguishfrom mortified pride, blasted expectations, or a sense of di

ed from the personal ruin; heart-ache is either hopelessness from a preceding. sense of some social bereavement, or relative ruin. The

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Lear.

• Relatio de Morbis anno 1720 Warsaviæ curatis. Dresd. 1730,

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