The First Americans: Race, Evolution and the Origin of Native Americans
Cambridge University Press, 6 oct. 2005 - 268 páginas
Who were the first Americans? What is their relationship to living native peoples in the Americas? What do their remains tell us of the current concepts of racial variation, and short-term evolutionary change and adaptation. The recent discoveries in the Americas of the 9000-12000 year old skeletons such as 'Kennewick Man' in Washington State, 'Luzia' in Brazil and 'Prince of Wales Island Man' in Alaska have begun to challenge our understanding of who first entered the Americas at the end of the last Ice Age. New archaeological and geological research is beginning to change the hypothesis of land bridge crossings and the extinction of ancient animals. The First Americans explores these questions by using racial classifications and microevolutionary techniques to better understand who colonized the Americas and how. It will be required reading for all those interested in anthropology, and the history and archaeology of the earliest Americans.
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14C ages alleles American Paleoindians Amerindians analysis ancient anthropologists archaeological Asia Asian biological Blangero bones burial Caucasoids Chapter Clovis colonization Congoids correlation cranial craniofacial cranium cultural dating demes dental traits dental variation differences dolichocranic Early Holocene environmental evolutionary female Figure Folsom founder effect frequencies gene flow genetic distance genetic drift genotype geographic Greenberg groups haplogroup haplotype Holocene Hrdlicˇka human remains ice sheets individuals Kennewick Konigsberg Late Holocene Late Pleistocene Little Salt Spring male migration Minatogawa modern Mongoloid morphology mtDNA Museum mutation Na-Dene NAGPRA Native American Native American origins Native American populations nDNA nonmetric North America Paleoindian Paleolithic pattern phenotypic variation population structure Powell and Neves prehistoric race racial racial–typological radiocarbon region Relethford result samples similar Sinodont skeletal skeleton skull Solutrean South southeast southern Spirit Cave Steele and Powell subpopulations Sundadonts teeth Terminal Pleistocene tooth tribes Upper Paleolithic variance Windover World yr BP