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should breed in some ponds, and not in others, of the same nature for soil and all other circumstances. And as their breeding, so are their decays also very mysterious: I have hoth read it, and been told by a gentleman of tried honesty, that he has known sixty or more large Carps put into several ponds near to a house, where, by reason of the stakes in the ponds, and the owner's constant being near to them, it was impossible they should be stole away from him; and that when he has, after three or four years, emptied the pond, and expected an increase from them by breeding young ones, for that they might do so he had, as the rule is, put in three melters for one spawner, he has, I say, after three or four years, found neither a young nor old Carp remaining. And the like I have known of one that had almost watched the pond, and, at a like distance of time, at the fishing of a pond, found, of seventy or eighty large Carps, not above five or six: and that he had forborne longer to fish the said pond, but that he saw, in a hot day in summer, a large Carp swim near the top of the water with a frog upon his head; and that he, upon that occasion, caused his pond to be let dry: and I say, of seventy or eighty Carps, only found five or six in the said pond, and those very sick and lean, and with every one a frog sticking so fast on the head of the said Carps, that the frog would not be got off without extreme force or killing. And the gentleman that did affirm this to me, told me he saw it; and did declare his belief to be, and I also believe the same, that he thought the other Carps, that were so strangely lost, were so killed by the frogs, and then devoured.

And a person of honour, now living in Worcestershire,* assured mc he had seen a necklace, or collar of tadpoles, hang like a chain or necklace of beads about a Pike's neck, and to kill him: Whether it were for meat or malice, must be, to me, a question.

But I am fallen into this discourse by accident; of which I might say more, but it has proved longer than I intended, and possibly may not to you be considerable: I shall therefore give you three or four more short observations of the Carp, and then fall upon some directions how you shall fish for him.

The age of Carps is by Sir Francis Bacon, in his History of Life

* ,: Mr Fr. Rn." This passage occurs for the first time in the fifth edition. The Only person mentioned in the last Herald's Visitation of Worcestershire, whose names agree with that reference, is Francis Rufford, of Sapy in that county, esquire, who died

about the year 1678, aged eighty-two, leaving by Margaret, daughter of Brydges

of Upleaden, in the county of Hereford—r. Francis, his son and heir, aet. 37, in 1683, who was then married and had three children; a. Tamarlanc of the city of London, who was also married and had issue; 3. Benjamin, who died unmarried in 168o ; and a daughter Ann, the wife of Jobn Yananlon of Redstone, in the county of Worcester. MS. in the College of Arms, marked K. 4, f. 154.

and Death, observed to be but ten years ; yet others think they live longer. Gesner says, a Carp has been known to live in the Palatine ahove a hundred years.*1 But most conclude that, contrary to the Pike or Luce, all Carps are the better for age and bigness. The tongues of Carps are noted to be choice and costly meat, especially to them that buy them: but Gesner says, Carps have no tongue like other fish, but a piece of fleshlike fish in their mouth like to a tongue, and should be called a palate : but it is certain it is choicely good, and that the Carp is to be reckoned amongst those leather-mouthed fish which, I told you, have their teeth in their throat; and for that reason he is very seldom lost by breaking his hold, if your hook be once stuck into his chaps.

I told you that Sir Francis Bacon thinks that the Carp lives but ten years: but Janus Dubravius 2 has writ a book "Of Fish and Fish-ponds," f in which he says that Carps begin to spawn at the age of three years, and continue to do so till thirty: he says also, that in the time of their breeding, which is in summer, when the sun hath warmed both the earth and water, and so apted them also for generation, that then three or four male Carps will follow a female; and that then, she putting on a seeming coyness, they force her through weeds and flags, where she lets fall her eggs ol spawn, which sticks fast to the weeds; and then they let fall their melt upon it, and so it becomes in a short time to be a living fish, and, as I told you, it is thought that the Carp does this several months in the year; { and most believe, that most fish breed after


1 Tliis passage from Gesner does not occur in the first edition : and the following sentence is added in the second, "and it is believed of carps as it is written of crocodiles, that they also thrive in bigness all their lives."

s In the first edition is added, "a German as I think."

* Lately, viz , in one of the daily papers for the month of August 178z, an article appeared, purporting that in the bason at Emanuel College, Cambridge, a Carp was then living that had been in the water thirty-six years ; which, though it had lost one eye, knew, and would constantly approach, its feeder, who was Dr Farmer, Master of the College.

At the seat of the Prince of Conde' at Chantilly, are, or rather were, immense shoals of very large Carp, "silvered o'er with age," like silver fish, and perfectly tame, so that when any passengers approached their watery habitation, they used to come to the shore in such numbers as to heave each other out of the water, begging for bread, of which a quantity was always kept at hand on purpose to feed them. They would even allow themselves to be handled. Sir J. E. Smith s Tour on the Continent, vol. i. 95, ed. 18o7. In the preface to the second edition, it is said the tame Carp at Chantilly were destroyed very early in the Revolution, p. xxx. t Vide antea, p. 133, &c.

t An anonymous writer giving instructions to Lord Burleigh for the regulations of his fish-ponds, &c., says: Because the carpe will eate his owne spawne, youe roust before Marche lay iij or iiij faggotts of osiers or willowe howes in the ponde wher your spawners be (which would not be ahove ij or iij in a ponde and iij or v meltcrs witnall) and so bynd the said faggotts small in the middle, and laye the toppes verve brode and bushy at eche end, and the spawner will sleke her bellie and spawne thereon, and the

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