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OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
“SOCIAL REFINEMENT HAS NO EXISTENCE WHERE LITERATURE 18 UNKNOWN.” [1822.
THE PHYSICAL AND MORAL WORLD, or principle of right and wrong, in the
more general sense, as it applies to No. 10.-Of the Passions, and of Moral taste, or matters of mere fancy or Evil.
opinion, predominates in the mind at
the time. Having in the three preceding num As we formerly said of instinct, so bers completed, as briefly as we could, may we now say of passion. “ Instinct our account of the animal and intellec- being thus a child of sensation, we tual faculties, we are aware it may may conclude, a priori, that all anistill be asked, “ But the passions! the mated nature capablo of feeling, will passions! What do you make of the be subjects of instinct; and that inpassions ? Mar, it is admitted, is a stinct is something all animals have in being that can think, and reason, and common, which, through the medium contrive, and imitate; but is this all of sensation, operates by some genethe account you would give of him? fral, but irresistible laws in their sysThe passions, the passions, what is tem, since without obeying their dicbecome of the passions?
tates, the animal creation could not Well, as we formerly remarked, subsist.” In like manner bere, pasWhat is instinct ? so we now resume sion being thus a child, partly of senthe question, and ask, What is pas-sation, and partly of reason, we may sion? And, as formerly, of instinct, conclude, a priori, that all animated we asked, “Is it feeling, or is it and rational being capable of feeling action?" so pow, of passion, we put a and reasoning, will be subjects of similar question, “Is it thought, or is passion; and that passion is someit reason ?" And as we formerly ob- thing all have in common, which, served of instinct, that it is neither through the mediam of sensation and feeling simply, nor action simply; so reason, operates by some general, but now we observe in like manner of irresistible laws in their system, since passion, that it is neither thought without obeying their dictates, the alone, nor
reason alone. But, on rational creation could not subsist in account of man, in whom the passions its rational state. And accordingly reside, being a compound of the ani- we perceive, that wherever passion mal and rational faculties, passion directed by reason has no existence at seems to be a combination made up of all, the man is more stupid than the the whole four ; and answers the same brute; and on the other hand, wherpurposes in man, considered as a ever passion is allowed to gain the rational being, which instinct does in ascendency over reason, the actions brutes. So that it may with propriety of that person, so long, and in as far be said, that it is feeling producing as he is under its influence, are not actim, and thought producing a kind the actions of a man, strictly speakof ratiocination; but ratiocination only ing, neither are they the actions of a of a certain kind,--leading irresistibly brute ; but they are those of a kind of to the obedience of certain laws, or demon, firebrands and fury being exrather to the obtaining of certain ob- baled with every breath. jects, which every man passionately
Thus is nature, in all her operapursues as his chief good.
tions, most pointedly scrupulous to This seems to be the province of the keep every order of beings in its own passions, and, according to this view, sphere. Nor is it possible for her to it is evident that the whole class of be more pointed in this respect than the passions, whether good or bad, are the sacred oracles; many thoumay be constantly, alternately, and / sand instances of which we could adreciprocally, called into action accord-duce, were it necessary. ing as the moral or immoral principle, The reader will now observe, that, No. 45.5 Vol. IV.
as our doctrine of sensation and in- that the state of Eternity is widely stinct, formerly stated, renders the different from any thing apparent in external and internal modes of anima- the visible universe ; for the alternation, maintained amidst a cloud of tion of light and darkness must obdarkness, by our author and the phy- tain, wherever planetary worlds are siologists, altogether unnecessary and revolving. “ But there shall be pro abortive; so in like manner does our night there. And the city had no need doctrine of the passions, now laid of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine down, render what he styles the ac in it; for the glory of God did lighten tive and passive mode of intelligence, it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. and all the mighty fabric he so indus- And the nations of them that are sared triously builds upon it, without any shall walk in the light of it; and they solidity or foundation.
need no candle, neither light of the sun; Thus have we finished, in the most for the Lord God giveth them light; succinct and perspicuous manner we and they shall reign for ever and were able, the grand scale of Intelli- ever.”. gence, in its three* most wonderful As light and darkness belong to the steps, as it respects the Intelligence first step of the scale of the universe, of God himself-of angels—and of so do attraction and repulsion to the men. Far be it from us, however, to second; which, by contrast, produce pretend that we have exhausted the the centripetal and centrifugal forces subject. If we have only afforded in the laws of motion, by which means some additional glimmerings, and the revolving orbs are made to appror. opened a new method, through the imate nearer to, or to recede to a instrumentality of our author, to ren- greater tlistance from, their centre of der further approximations easy-this gravity. And even where the motions is all that we lay claim to.
are exactly circular, there must needs The six steps of the great scale be an alternate proximity and disbeing thus finished, we are now pre- tance, relative to the sun, in every pared to enter on the seventh and last spot of a planet's surface, as it turns step, which is the great Moral scale; on its axis; and where the orbits are or scale of Physical and Moral Good elliptical, a vicissitude of A phelion and Eril.
and Peribelion, and many other irre: And in order to treat this step in as gularities, must needs be produced. perspicuous a manner as possible, it Now, all these are inconsistent with will be necessary to take a glance, in the figurative imagery of the eternal the first place, of what the scripture state; so that the visible universe says of the invisible state of eternity. must be temporal and transitory; Our author, all at once enters deeply “heaven and earth shall pass away." into this subject; plunging, as it were,
What a luminous vier of this subinto this boundless ocean. Here he lime subject does this admirable bint beholds a state, from the various suggest ? We have heard it often adumbrations of scripture, 2 Cor. xii. spoken of; and many pious and well2, 4. Rev. xxi. 3, 10, 18, 22, &c. at meaning people have spent their once marked with ideas of perfect strength in telling us, “That there beauty, symmetry, regularity, harmony, shall be a new heaven and a new splendour, glory, centrical position, ex- earth ;" but never one till this moaltation, commanding influence, stability, ment has been able as it were to radiation of light, limitation or fenc- demonstrate the point, from the clear ing in.
and perspicuous allegorical represenThese allegorical representations, tations of scripture, which now appear he observes, are connected in figure as evident as the sun at noon-day. with the central step of the great scale This great discovery, shall we call it
, or seven-fold mystery of nature, by the has been reserved for Mr. Machab; vegetation of the Tree of Life, and and we think it indeed somewbat reParadise illuminated by the Divine markable, that all the bodies of this Glory.
visible universe, which constitute that These allegories sufficiently prove, heaven and earth which shall pass away,
are, in their very figure or form, to For brevity's sake, we have had to pass say nothing of their restless motion, over unnoticed two of these steps. See No. 8,
so essentially different from that whick for August, conclusion,
is stationary and eternal. All these,
as if made for motion, and motion, as / slept while yet in perfect innocence if indicative of their end, appear in a and happiness, Gen ji. 21. spherical shape. But not so the New But it may be remarked, that sleep heaven and New earth, for which we is not only that which distinguishes look according to his promise. This is the state of probation from the state connected with the type or representa- of eternity, but that it is a symbol of tion, not of the circle, but of the square. death, while death itself is yet unThe figure of the New Jerusalem, known. Thus it was to Adam in Pa. which John saw descending from God radise. It is a temporary victory of out of beaven, was not that of a the left or physical, over the right or sphere or globe, but of a cube or spiritual side of the scale. Sleep square; denoting at once, that it is seems to be a physical phenomenon designed not for motion, or for a tem- designed to prevail universally over porary and transitory state, like all all the systems of the universe, which the bodies of this visible universe ; are visited with an alternation of light but for a state fixed and permanent, and darkness. Hence, says the Aposand built upon the immoveable foun- tle, as a kind of proverbial expression, dation which God hath laid in Zion. “They that sleep, sleep in the night.'
The vicissitudes observed in the first Many, if not all the different species and second of the scale, throughout of vegetables, obey this law, and althe visible universe, suggest, by ana most all the brute creation ;-and as logy, corresponding vicissitudes in the for the beasts of prey, which roam the sirth and seventh. Thus, in the phy- | desarts in the dark, and turn day into sical side of the scale, step first, the night, or the midnight balls and intensity of light shed upon a body, bacchanalian revels among the human may be diminished by elongation of species; such phenomena, whether the distance, or intercepted by the among men or brutes, are by no means chemical nature of the body itself; natural, nor bad they the smallest that is to say, it may be diminished by place in the original constitution of phenomena belonging to the second, or God's universe. For throughout the intercepted by phenomena belonging to universe, in its original state, it is the third of the scale. Even so, in proverbially true, “They that sleep, the spiritual side of the scale, the sleep in the night.” This is the agreeeffulgence of divine light or glory, able period which nature has allotted which is emblematically represented to recruit their exhausted spirit; and by the natural light, on the soul of a where innocence exists, to follow Nabeing like man, may be diminished by ture's laws is the grand concern. ignorance, or intercepted by the animal Our author proceeds to give a beaunature of an imbodied spirit ; that is tiful delineation of sleep and dreamto say, it may be diminished by pheno- ing ;* but in this we shall not follow mena belonging to the sixth or intellec- him, but rather attend to what he tual, or intercepted by phenomena be- says in the next article, as being more longing to the fifth or animal steps of connected with our subject. the scale. But this diminution or “Thus, anterior to his transgresinterception of the divine light or sion, we see that man was figuratively glory, through the unavoidable igno- admonished of death ; and the same rance or weakness of the animal admonition is given once a day to the nature, of the creature on whom it is inhabitants of every other world in shed, argues no degree of wrong in the the universe, wherever the rays of moral, of falsehood in the intellectual, light are intercepted by opaque masses.” or of pain in the animal part of its Art. 261. constitution. All this might take He had formerly remarked, Art. place in a state of perfect innocence 94, that in this world, the seven steps and purity. For the state of diminu- of the great scale of the universe, as tion and interception alluded to, is already laid down, are distinguished that of sleep, or any thing analogous by certain analogous vicissitudes or to it among perfect beings ; for Adam contrarieties. Thus, there are,
In the first or Elemental, ... Light and Darkness.
* Theory, Art. 256–260.
*In the fourth or Vegetable, Strength and Weakness.
Action and Passion.
In the seventh or Moral, . . . . . Right and Wrong. Now, as it is the main design of our | implies moral guilt, and had no existauthor' here to shew, that notwith-ence prior to the introduction of sin; standing such vicissitudes and contra- but in the last sense, it arises from the rieties did indeed exist from the constitution of the animal nature of an beginning of the creation, or period imbodied spirit, to which no blame when the whole order of this visible can be attached, being analogous to universe was adjusted and set a-going, the obscuration which takes place is yet that these vicissitudes and contra- all the different planets by their rotarieties did not imply at that time the tory motion on their axis. existence of Physical or Moral Evil. In the same way may attraction and For as light and darkness, in the first of | repulsion, composition and decomporthe scale, may be produced either by tion, strength and weakness, and all the an elongation of the planet's distance mechanical, chemical, and vegetable from the source of light, or by the phenomena of nature, with their corchemical opacity of the planet's body; responding phenomena of spirit, be even so in the seventh of the scale, easily conceived as existing in a state which is the step that harmonizes with analogous to this world in every rethe first, there is Moral Illumination, spect, yet without either physical or when the eye of the intellect beholds moral evil. Such, it is probable
, is the glory of the “Sun of righteous- the condition of every other world in ness ;” and Moral Obscuration, when the universe ; and such was the coueither by an elongation of the distance dition of our own, anterior to the first from God, which is not applicable to transgression. But by the introduca state of innocence, or by the animal tion of sin and death into our world, its nature of an imbodied spirit, it is cast whole nature underwent a fatal into a passive state, and hence is in- change. Let, therefore, the epithet capable of active and direct Moral Noxious be added to the foregoing Illumination at the time, as in the scale of Vicissitudes and Contrariesleep of Adam in Paradise. Moral ties, and the scale of Physical and MoObscuration in the first signification, 'ral Evil will be as follows. There is
, In the first or Elemental, . . Noxious Light and Noxious darkness. In the second or Mechanical, Noxious Attraction and Noxious Repulsion. In the third or Chemical, Noxious Composition and Noxious Decomposi
tion. *In the fourth or Vegetable, Noxious Strength and Noxious Weakness. In the fifth or Animal, Noxious Action and Noxious Passion. In the sixth or Intellectual, Noxious Knowledge and Noxious Ignorance. In the seventh or Moral, . . . Noxious Moral Illumination and Noxious Moral
Obscuration. “These symbols are expressive of intelligence or knowledge, a retrogradathe whole compass of Moral and Phy- tion or looking back to the nakedness sical Evil, so that each of them may of nature, devoid of moral virtue. By be conceived to represent a class, or turning the back upon the prospect of catalogue of evils, sliding into each glory, as the Final End in the serenth other by insensible gradation, and or moral step of the scale, and looking resolvable only by approximation towards the six preceding steps, the The subject of inquiry is, the mystery heart is inverted, or perverted, and of moral and physical evil. Now, never can, by any natural means, be evil having been first introduced rectified.” through the moral faculty of man, we 1. We begin then, with Norius begin with the seventh or last of the Moral Illumination, and Norious Morel scale, and proceed contrary to the natu- | Obscuration. The first has for its final ral order to the first.
end, false glory, or pride, which is the “Evil arises from the inversion of root of all evil. It has for its author, the ailections of a moral agent, from Sutan, who seduced mankind by inthe prospeet of glory (to which they spiring them with a principle of false were at first directed) towards mere glory, and made even the same at