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These public marks of esteem, thus pouring out their own lives whilst bestowed upon the memory of Leonar- seeking that of another, as true victims do Aretino, evince the respect which to the grim Moloch of destruction as the Italian states paid to literary me- ever thronged the altars of a barbarit in the fifteenth century. For it was rous and idolatrous people. Whilst to his scholarship that this illustrious the earth bas swallowed up her own reviver of literature was indebted for offspring, with a voracity that sets the the employments which he obtained earthquake at defiance; the ocean, too, in the pontifical chancery, and for the murmurs for her sbare, and the minrank to which he was elevated in his gled sounds of vengeance and destrucnative republic. He was a true lover tion, of agony and despair, have risen of his country, jealous of its indepen- up in one uniform unremitting course dence, and ambitious for the promo- -a hateful sacrifice before the eternal tion of its honour. If we may judge throne. The agonies of a premature from his writings, his principles were and violent death have been more upright; and he had imbibed from the than doubled by the desolation and study of the ancients, a familiar ac- wretchedness of those who survive. quaintance with the best maxims of The warrior sleeps on his gory bed, morality and of civil polity. The the blood of the brave stains the ocean works of the classic writers, indeed, tlood,—they are at rest, and they are were the objects of his daily studies, honoured, while the living are left to and of his nightly vigils. His industry mourn them; not upfrequently with must have been truly exemplary; for, no other support, but unavailing sighs though his engagements of business and tears. Orphans, widows, and must have occupied much of his time, the childless, are left a prey to the he constantly carried on an extensive varied calamities of life. correspondence with men the most But we shall, perhaps, be told that distinguished by their rank and their it is necessary for the honour of naliterary acquirements, of the age in tions, like that of individuals, that which he lived ; and the catalogue of wars, as well as duels, should be tohis published works, as arranged by lerated that they are in many inthe accurate and diligent Mehus, ex- stances unavoidable, and should be tends to no less than sixty-three arti- acquiesced in and continued, if not cles. His Latin style is correct, but perpetuated and approved. Of this deficient in elegance, partaking more occasional necessity, in both cases, of the abruptness of Sallust, than the we freely admit the justice of the arcopious fluency of Cicero. For his gument, in other times and circumzeal and perseverance in prosecuting stances, and in the primitive stages the discovery of the lost works of the of society, before the light of the gosancients, modern scholars are more pel, and of civilization, bad shone indebted to him than many of them upon mankind. When every man's are aware ; and whosoever estimates arm was against every one, and tribes his literary character with candour, sworc vengeance and blood against and even with justice, will be much tribes, such mode of warfare we allow more inclined, in consideration of the to have bee just and necessary. But disadvantages under which he labour- where is the parallel between the ed, to admire his excellencies, than rudest ages, and the most savage and to find fault with his deficiencies, and untamed inhabitants of the earth, with will be ready to acknowledge, that the enlightened times in which we though he lived during the dawn of live, to draw any argument in favour the revival of literature, he contri- of the ferocious customs of our ancesbuted not a little to the bringing on tors? The very arguments which once of the splendour of the risen day. supported the use of them, equally

demonstrate, in this age, their abuse :

-and it is a wretched excuse for reON THE PROBABILITY OF ABOLISHING taining the clements of barbarism,

and the unprincipled vices of “man.

the savage,” by contending that they ( Concluded from col. 140.)

are still requisite to protect the mem

ber of civilized society. This last Thousands, tens of thousands, have resource of culpable passions, and of fallen by the hands of their fellow men, iguorant prejudice and superstition,

WAR,

221
On the Probability of abolishing War.

222 this appeal to the fears, and reliance , wantonly attacked by the avarice or upon the infatuation of mankind, will, ambition of another, the invaders would doubtless, in time, he brought to yield, be quickly destroyed, or rather delike our inquisitions, slave traffics, voured at a mouthful. They would and despotisms, to the united and be stung to death like a drone in a bee overwhelming powers of religion, in- bive. They would be sent to work and telligence, and truth.--Even on the to the Meeting, and speedily reclaimgrounds of cautious policy, and the ed from the error of their ways.--Why interests of aggrandisement and then should we indulge fears for the wealth, what fears need we entertain, consequences of eradicating out of in the supposition of abolishing wars, human commerce and human instituthat national honour and safety would | tions, one of the very worst princibe endangered? What degree of ples, (that of authorized bloodshed,) probability is there, that the Otahei- which the depravity of our nature ad tan, the Tartar, the wild Arab, or the mits ?— No evils, we think, could posNorth American savage, will, as the sibly be incurred, were one, or all barbarians of old, make a descent, nations, in this, to join the society of and attack the regions of the civilized Friends to-morrow. We might sit European, if he be not in readiness to down in worse than Turkish apathy receive them with a pistol, for an and fatality, were no improvement to imagined insult, and a musket and take place, for fear of risking the altebayonet, in case of invasion ? Nothing ration. but an insane idea can excuse the One of the most fatal enemies to the supposition.

tranquillity and happiness of human The fears to be entertained of a life, is, that jealous and timid apprerival nation, may, also, be proved as heusion, which foresees evils at too groundless. Were the standing army, great a distance, and often imagines and every soldier in a country, instan- them when they do not exist ; por is it taneously disbanded, are we absurd seldom that this weak and foolish poenough to suppose that the arnıy of licy, by exciting appearances of prethe next people would march instanter parative hostility, has occasioned to invade and occupy it?—No such those very quarrels, against the efthing. It would doubly respect, and fects of which it was intended to doubly fear, the motives and charac- provide. ter of a nation, capable of exhibiting On these subjects, the selfish prinsuch an instance of magnanimity, ciple has sometimes been carried to humanity, and true courage and con- such an extreme, as almost to border fidence in themselves. It would be on insanity. The most remote effects felt that the army, in becoming part of become present;-the mostimprobable the people,-the whole people had be- consequences appear certain ;- the come a formidable army, and such a most trising things seem of the highest nation, in its very nature alone, would importance: for nothing is so contagibe invincible. More than this, its ous as fear. We have, in our own example would be followed, instead times, seen this great nation agitated to of violated and scouted, until a its centre, about a barren rock, called standiog army would become a stand- Falkland's Island, and trembling for ing jest,

our possessions in the East Indies, if We see that societies and commu- we should part with the key of nities of Quakers, truly deserving the them, by relinquishing, in pursuance appellation of Friends, can not only of a solemn treaty, the island of subsist, but flourish, by virtue of the Malta. principles we would recommend. When one nation, without a just Their entity is only to war, and their cause of offence, attacks another by battle to withstand the payment of force of arms, she commits a crime taxes—thosé sinews which support it. against her not the less heinous, beNow, would it not be possible that a cause there is no earthly judicature colony or a nation of Quakers might by which it can be punished. Is agexist, and acquire national reputation, grandizement the object? If this were integrity, wealth, and power, in the allowed to be a legitimate cause of same manner as among individuals war, it would only be a general license and societies? We think it might: to the stronger to oppress the weaker, and supposing the worst, that it was or, in other words, a concession to the

race.

odious and profligate maxim that, the western and northern barbarians; power constitutes right.

and thus, whatever remained of the Is it to prevent another nation from Greek empire, its literature and its increasing her strength, and improving art, were finally obliterated by the deher internal resources !—This is the solating power of the Mahometan fair contest in which every nation, as tribes, who had, at one time, threatwell as every individual, is engaged; ened to establish their authority in the and if we were allowed to wreak our central provinces of Europe. Regardvengeance on all those, who, by their ing it, therefore, on its greatest scale, ability or their industry, surpass us in war is so far from having contributed the career of life, there would be an to the improvement and prosperity of end of human society. All nations mankind, that it may rather be consiare benefited by the exertions of any dered as the extinguisher which has particular nation; and to repress the put out the light of civilization, and energies, or prevent the improvement, for a long course of centuries has inof any, is a crime against the human volved the fairest portions of the

Even in the agitated state, and earth in hopeless and impenetrable imperfect regulations, under which darkness. Europe bas existed, what nation is But if we were to discover, or to there, to which mankind has not been admit, that conquered nations bave, at indebted for some useful discoveries, times, been indebted to their adversome beneficial results, some addi- saries for some advancement in useful tions to the comforts and convenien- knowledge, or for some beneficial accies, or the pleasures, of life? quirements; will any person have the

But it may, perhaps, be objected, hardihood to assert that this would be that if wars are not inevitable, yet a justitication of war?-Would it not that in many points of view they be the most glaring hypocrisy in any would be desirable. That by means people, to pretend that they made of war and conquest, knowledge has war on another nation to promote been diffused through the most unen- their prosperity, honour, and happilightened portions of the earth, and ness? of all the pretexts by which that they are in fact the implements, ambition, superstition, or animosity, of which Providence has thought pro- have ever attempted to impose on the per to make use, for the civilization of world, this would be the most absurd mankind.

and contemptible, the most false, and This objection may admit of a dis- the most deiestable. tinction. It may either be considered In its own opinion, every nation is as the assertion of a mere historical the most enlightened, and consefact, or as a justilication of war. quently rejects the officious kindness

With regard to the first, it must be of instruction, at the point of the allowed, that as in the order and sword. course of Providence, good is often But it has not been possible, on all educed from evil, and as infinite occasions, to avoid these efforts of power and wisdom can, even from extraordinary benevolence. And the the enormities and crimes of the wick- progress of the Turks in the established, accomplish the most beneficial inent of their dominion in the three purposes ; so it may have been, that quarters of the old world,-and the the contests of exasperated and hos- Spaniards, by tormenting and extirtile nations may eventually have been pating the inhabitants of the new,productive of some benefit. If, how- afford a fair specimen of the effects of ever, we turn to the annals of former wars, undertaken to civilize and enages, we shall find it difficult to sup- lighten mankind. port such an opinion, upon the autho- Whether war be successful or unrity of established facts; wbilst, on the successful, the consequences of it are contrary, we have innumerable in almost equally to be deprecated. The stances, where the progress of civili- result of an unsuccessful war is an zation has been impeded, and the implicit subinission to the will of a order and happiness of society over- conqueror,--disgrace, slavery, and thrown, by the irruption of an ambi- death,—whatever the victor may pretious and a barbarous foe.

scribe; and all these have been preIt was thus, that the polished states scribed in their turn.—The conseof Greece sunk before the ravages of Iquences of a successful warfare, if

225
On the Probability of abolishing War.

226 not so immediate, are scarcely less tion of the approaching abolition of. ecrtain, or less unfavourable. It in- war. evitably introduces pride, arrogance, That in the continual fluctuations high and unjust assumptions, inordi- and ultimate improvement of human nate and ambitious views, systems of affairs, a period will arrive, when the rapacity against surrounding states, civilized world will unite in one great and a contempt for all those internal effort for the prevention of war, may, resources and useful pursuits, on nevertheless, be considered certain. which the real prosperity of a state Even at present, indications appear essentially depends.

of a disposition to that effect, on the In proportion to the extent of its result of which it would be premature territory abroad, is the relaxation of to judge ; but we cannot avoid perits political system at home. The in-ceiving, that whenever that monient fuence of a haughty soldiery over-arrives, it will be the crisis of the hupowers all civil authority, till at length man race,-the charter of its liberty, the mighty fabric, the work of ages, peace, and happiness—or the sentence falls into ruins, and the very seat and that consigos it over to ignorance, boncentre of empire becomes an easy dage, and disgrace. The general conquest to some of those despised concerns of the earth will then be agiand distant nations, wbich, so far tated-melted down into one common from inspiring terror, were considered mass, to rise in hateful deformity, or as almost below contempt.

to receive a new and more beautiful It is under circumstances of this impression, pature, that the human race seems to -“ the genias and the mortal instruments fall from its proud pre-eminence, and Are then in motion; and the state of man, to exbibit itself under a servile, base, Like to a little kingdom, suffers then and degrading aspect. Sickening, at

The pature of an insarrection." length, at the horrors of war; suffer- Nor must it be presumed that the ing under continual calamities and struggle will be of easy decision. privations, terrified at reiterated in- Whenever these momentous decisions stances of unsparing cruelties, alarm- arise, the spirits hostile to their speed at the uncertainty of life and the cies are always at work, eager to grainsecurity of property, the inhabitants tify their ambitious, mercenary, or of once flourishing states and empires, unholy aims, and in the operative sink, an easy and unresisting prey, moment, to convert the healthlul mass under the dominion of any ruler, who to poison. If, on other occasions, may be likely to afford them an asy- their efforts bave been attended with lum from evils which they can no too much success, is it not to be fearlonger bear. In the mean time, alled that, at this most important mothe institutions of polished life, all ment, they will endeavour to establish the light of intellect and elevation of their power upon a permanent founcharacter, all love of independence dation ?--and under the pretext of and sympathy with others, are absorb- suggesting to the sovereigos of the civied and lost in the mean and selfish lized world, the idea of a general and regard to immediate preservation and uninterrupted pacification, will proindividual security. Then comes the mote a league for the security of the universal gloom of ignorance, and individual authority of each against superstition, sweeping, like an un- the natural rights, established privihealthy fog, over the nations of the leges, and just claims, of their peoearth; whilst century after century ple? rolling on in almost indistinguished If such an event were possible, then succession, only serves to attest the indeed would the degradation of the debasement of the human race. The human race be complete; and the deplorable condition of Europe, dur- world itself would only be a mighty ing the long period of a thousand prison, of which every inhabitant must years, may surely be admitted as a wear a chain, the weight of which sufficient evidence of the fact.

must be according to the will of his On the other hand, the wonderful keeper. improvements, both intellectual and But such a result is impossible. political, as well as religious, intro- The friends of mankind look forward duced within the last century, may be to brighter prospects. They fear not adverted to as an infallible indica- | to enter into the contest with their

opponents, and anticipate their final days. The air in the receiver will triumph. They know that the period become gradually absorbed by the for such apprehensions is past. That compound, till only about threeknowledge has carried her torch into fourths remain of its original bulk. the remotest recesses of the earth,- The completion of the process may be that she has thrown her beams over readily ascertained by the ascent of the thrones of sovereigns, and called the water into the receiver. Upon to her aid those in whom she can con- examination, the residue will be found fide. Under ber influence, every at- to be nitrogen gas. tempt to infringe on the common Procure a common glass vial, with rights of mankind, or to suppress the a good cork, through which fasten a independence of nations, could meet small wire; and fix a small piece of wax only with abhorrence, as the signal taper to the end of the wire. Light for new resistance, new excesses, and the taper, and introduce it into the new crimes.

vial. The taper will burn for some It will then be perceived that the time, but will at length be extinfamily of an individual is sacred, guished; the taper is to be thus rethat in matters of external arrange- peatedly lighted, and introduced into ment it acts by its chief, whose autho- the vial till all the oxygen of the air rity is to be decided by those whom contained in the vial is consumed ; he represents, and not by those with which will be known by the lighted whom he is to deliberate and contend, taper being immediately extinguished --that for others to interfere in his on coming into contact with the air in domestic or internal concerns, either the vial. The vial may now be into extend his authority, or to excite verted with its neck into the water, resistance in those, who, by nature or in pneumato-chemical, till the nitroby law, are subjected to him, is equal- gen gas is wanted for experiment. ly criminal,--and that to suppose the Very pure nitrogen gas may be obpeace of the world can be established tained by treating fresh animal subon any other foundation than the per- stances with nitric acid. Cut mascufect independence of separate states, lar flesh into small pieces, introduce is to betray a degree of ignorance be- them into an earthenware or common low contempt.

glass retort, and pour very much diA PEACEMAKER. luted nitric acid upon them ; apply a

gentle heat, and collect the gas over water. In like manner this gas may be obtained from the crassamentum

of the blood, and also from the seEssay 2d.-Nitrogen Gas. rum, and white of eggs. Nitrogen

gas, like common air, is invisible, ( Continued from col. 28.)

colourless, and elastic; capable of The term nitrogen is derived from indefinite expansion and compresthe Greek language, and signifies the sion. generator of nitre.

Nitrogen gas,

Its specific gravity, as determined called also mephitic air, phlogisti- by Mr. Kerwan, is 120°, though Mr. cated air, and azotic gas, was first Lavoisier makes it only 115o. Acdiscovered by Dr. Rutherford, in cording to Mr. Kerwan's analysis, it 1772. Nitrogen gas may be obtained is, therefore, to atmospheric air, as by various means; but I shall, in this 985 to 1000. It is not absorbable of place, confine myself to the enumera- water. It is fatal to animal life; this

CHEMICAL ESSAYS.

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