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revelation have one and the same scription this year, you subscribed Author, and both taken together, con- only half-a-guinea.' He made no restitute the two-fold set of laws adapt- ply; but after a time asked, Pray, ed for the government of the compound Sir, answer me a question :-why do being, man; so the theory wbich does you live upon potatoes? (I did sobenot make them agree, must, undoubt-tween three and four years.) I repliedly be founded on error.

ed, "It has much conduced to my But what are we to do with the health. He answered, “I believe it difficulties, it may be asked ? For, has. But did you not do it likewise that there are difliculties in both, can- to save money?" I said, “I did, for not be denied. “He who believes what I save from my own meat, will the scripture to have proceeded from feed another that else would have Him who is the Author of nature,” none.'—. But, Sir,' said he, if this said a Christian father,* “may well be your motive, you may save much expect to find the same sort of difficul- more; I know a man that goes to marties in it, as are found in the constitu- ket at the beginning of every week. tion of nature.”

There he buys a pennyworth of parsSince, then, it is admitted that nips, which he boils in a large quantity there are difficulties in both, what are of water. The parsnips serve him for we to do with these? We are to seek food, and the water for drink, the enfor the solution of real difficulties which suing week, so his meat and drink occur in nature, not in the theories of together cost him only a penny a men respecting them, but in the volume week. This he constantly did, though of inspiration ; for here, in most cases, he had two hundred pounds a year, to such solutions are alone to be found. pay the debts which he had contracted And on the other hand, many of the before he knew God!'-And this was real difficulties which occur in scrip- he, whom I had set down for a covettare, are alone to be solved, by refe- ous man!” rences to the history of nature and of providence. Hence, therefore, the propriety of connecting, and of not allowing, on any account, these two

OF A SAILOR. sources of all our information to be separated. Nature and revelation are

“O! why has worth so short a date, the two volumes written by the finger

While villains ripen grey with time?

Mast then, the noble, gen'rous, great, of God, and contain innumerable refc Fall in bold manhood's hardy prime ?" rences from the one to the other; so

BURNS. that neither can be rightly understood, Five years have nearly performed unless both are attended to.

their revolution, since John Carnchan • Origen. Philo. p. 23.

(a seaman) and a little boy, prepared ( To be continued.)

to go ashore in a boat from the smack Jane, of Carrickfergus, then lying at anchor off Silver Stream, about two miles and a half from that town. The boy first entered the boat in safety;

but as the seaman was descending the On this subject, the late Rev. John side of the smack, to enter also, he Wesley has recorded the following lost his hold, fell upon the gunwale of fact, occurring under his own imme- the boat, upset her, and both were diate observation.

precipitated to the bottom of the deep. * Beware,” says he,“ of forming a When they canje again to the surface hasty judgment concerning the fortune of the water, both made towards the of others. There may be secrets in boat, which the wind and the surge of the situation of a person, which few the sea had driven to a short distance. but God are acquainted with. Some But as the boy happened to rise nearyears since, I told a gentleman, “Sir, er to her than the seaman, he reached I am afraid you are covetous.' He her first, and clung to her stern. In a asked me, * What is the reason of your few seconds the seaman also arrived fears? I answered, “A year ago, at the boat, but when he caught hold when I made a collection for the ex- of her for support, how great must pense of repairing the Foundry, you have been the anguish of his heart to subscribed five guineus ; at the sub- lind, that she was incapable of pre




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serving both their lives, and that if | known God. But infidels have boldly one of them did not relinquish his asserted to the contrary—that there is hold, the boat would inevitably go to no God. Let them, however, trace the bottom.

effects to their causes, and they will When the boy found the boat to be find that there must be a great first sinking, he addressed the seaman in cause, who created man, and, "wbo, the most earnest and suppliant lan- ever busy, rules the silent spheres: guage to let go his hold. “Ah! (says but enough !ias been said in your Oche,) will you see me drowned, gracious tober magazine, col. 912, upon this heaven! what shall I do! Dear, dear subject, in an essay entitled " Atheim parents, must I never behold you an Absurdity.” again!” The benevolent, the generous, The immortality of the soul, they the tender-hearted Carnchan, touched bave also denied ; and thus degraded with the piercing accents of the boy, man below the brute : for as the deimmediately relinquished bis hold, sires of our souls are infinite, it can and, as he was an excellent swimmer, never be supposed, that the Great made towards the shore ; for the smack Architect of Nature would endow us was so high above the surface of the with desires and faculties, which can water, and two of the crew that remain never be gratified. Can we suppose ed in her were so stupified with terror, that he who breathed into our nostrils that they were unable to render them the breath of life, should design us the least assistance. But, alas! the only for this transient life? No, the seaman had not proceeded forty perch- soul es when his strength failed him, and -shall flourish in immortal youth he sunk, to rise no more! Thus, this Unhurt, amidst the war of elements, excellent and compassionate charac- The wreck,, of matter, and the crush of

worlds." ter fell a victim to his own generosity; to preserve the life of a fellow-crea But they also, by declaring the Biture, he exposed his own to the great- ble untrue, would rob the Christian of est danger. His object, indbed, was his comfort and support under dificulaccomplished, for the boy was saved; ties. One of the strongest proofs for but the sweet consolation of having the truth of the Bible is, that remarksaved a fellow-creature from destruc- able chain of prophecy which distintion was not permitted to cheer his guishes it throughout. But the infideparting moments.

del says, that, as this prophetic spirit W.L

has subsided, the prophecies are only Carrickfergus, Oct. 8, 1821.

histories, written after the events had come to pass. This is an old objec

tion; it was urged by the earliest eneOBSERVATIONS ON THE NATURE of mies of revelation, and refuted by its INFIDELITY.-BY JUVENIS. earliest friends.

But wbatever may be said respecting INFIDELITY, which had been wander- some distant predictions, it is certain ing about the earth like a malignant that there are others, to which this spectre, only cherished in the minds objection cannot apply; especially to of a few individuals, became imbo- those that are receiving their fulbldied into a club, under Voltaire, ment in the present day. Among D'Alembert, and other French philo- these may be included, those wbich sophers. Its design was to suppress relate to the establishment of MahoChristianity, and to disseminate vice, mctavism, to the antichristian domiby propagating a system of philosophy nion of the Pope, and to the dispersed more cold and cheerless to the mind condition of the Jews. Mahomet conof man, than any that had hitherto tinues at the present moment, to raise afllicted the world. It denied the ex- his proud crescent in the cast; and, istence of a God, declared that death until the reformation dawned upon was only an eternal sleep of the soul, our ancestors, the papal antichrist and contemned the truth of the drew the dark curtain of ignorance Bible.

over this country. But “the Sun of The existence of a supreme being righteousness arose with healing in has been believed even by heathens; his wings;" and dispersing the mists for when St. Paul went to Athens, he of error, emancipated us from those found there an altar erectod to the Un- chains of superstition, which several


nations still continue to wear. The and guarded with the utmost strictJews, though scattered among the ness. The Emperor was gone before various kingdoms of the world, and to the episcopal palace, to which they carrying with them the records of were all to repair before they shut their own destiny, remain every where themselves up. At their arrival he a distinct people. Their conquerors alighted from his borse, and received have disappeared, having been melted them at the gate of the palace, with down among the nations with which so many marks of respect and devothey have had an intercourse, while tion, that from many of them he drew the vanquished still survive, exhibit- tears. When they had entered the ing to the world that “blindness in palace before the cathedral, they all part is happened to Israel, until the fell on their knees; and whilst they fulness of the Gentiles be come in." were in that posture, the Patriarch of

In relation to civilized society, Antioch, accompanied by the clergy, wherever infidelity prevails, there with the cross and a great number of anarchy and confusion will soon fol- wax tapers borne before them, went low. This was the case in France. out of the church in his pontifical haThe scaffolds streamed with the blood bit, and gave them his blessing, after of its nobles. It was infidelity which which they arose and went to the conmurdered the sovereign, to make way clave. The Emperor was already for a set of tyrants to rule with the there, and took each of the electors dagger of terror, under the olive by the hand to lead them in; earnestly branch of peace; and it was this pow- entreating them to choose such a man er which caused the waters of the as they thought worthy of the triple Loire to swell with the blood of the crown, without partiality or unseemly mangled victims of its cruelty. disputes. They then entered, by torch Derby, Dec. 9, 1821.

light, into the conclave, which had

been carefully darkened. They took NEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND Times of they were allowed two a piece, so that

each but one waiting man, though

the whole number of those who were ( Concluded from col. 134.)

shut up in the conclave, amounted to

one hundred and six. When they It bas been already mentioned, that, had entered with the Emperor, he immediately on his deposition, 'John caused them all to take an oath, that XXII. was conveyed, in pursuance of they would choose a Pope of piety and the orders of the council, to the for- good manners, able and willing to tress of Gotleben. This event took reform the church. After this oath place in the month of June, 1415.* was administered, the Emperor reThe assembled fathers seem not to tired, and the conclave was locked bave been in haste to fill the vacancy ap. All possible measures were taken which had thus occurred in the papal for the security of this place. Two chair. The critical state of the princes, with the grand master of church, no doubt, required that they Rhodes, kept watch at the gate day should proceed upon this important and night, with the keys hung about measure with due deliberation, and their necks; and upon the steps there they, in all probability, deemed it were six soldiers, who were enjoined expedient, before they entered upon to so profound a silence that they were a new election, to make a variety of not heard to speak. Before the house regulations concerning ecclesiastical where the conclave was, there was matters, in the maturing of which placed a table, at which sat the Bishthey would have been thwarted and ops and Doctors, appointed to search embarrassed by the jealousy of an

the dishes carried to the conclave, for actual occupant of the pontifical fear lest any letters or billets should throne. Two years and upwards be conveyed in the dishes or cups. elapsed before their plans were ripen- After this search, the Grand Master ed; and at length, on the 7th of Nov. of Rhodes carried the dish or bowl, in 1417, the electors entered the con- which was the meat or drink, to the clave, in which they were watched window, and gave it to the servant of

him to whom the vessel belonged, * L'Enfant's Council of Constance, vol. i. who at the same time returned back

that in which any meat or drink


p. 310.

had been brought to him be- bad the satisfaction of receiving the fore.

submission of John XXII. the deposThe result of these precautions thused Pontiff, who, having escaped from taken to prevent the spirit of intrigue the place of his confinement, came to and worldly ambition from interfering throw himself on his mercy. Martin with the more elevated motives by received his fallen predecessor with which the choice of the conclave ought kindness, and bestowed upon him the to be dictated, was, that after some dignity of Cardinal, which, however, stormy debates, the suffrages of the he did not long enjoy, as he died at electors were, on the 10th of Nov. Florence before the termination of 1417, unanimously bestowed on Otto the year. $ Colonna, a member of a noble Roman It has been observed, that the Tusfamily of high distinction, who imme can government treated Martin with diately, on his nomination to the pon- the honours due to his rank ; but this tificate, assumed the name of Mar- does not seem to have been the case tin V.+

with the populace, at least towards Thus terminated the famous schism the close of his residence in their city. of the West, but not before this eccle- To the licentiousness of the vulgar, siastical feud had given a deadly blow his poverty was an object of contempt, to the pontifical authority. Gregory and they vented their ridicule of bim had died about a month before the in contumelious songs. Leonardo, nomination of Martin; Benedict XIII. who had been assiduous in his attenthough he thundered his anathemas tions to him since the time of his arri. from the fortress of Paniscola, found val, observed with pain, that the rudeso few supporters, that bis fulmina- ness of the rabble had made a deep tions were regarded as objects of con- impression on his mind, and that he tempt; and Martin was acknowledged was about to quit the Florentine state as Pontiff

' by all the powers of Chris- with very unfavourable impressions of tendom. Still, however, the past the character of his countrymen. could not be forgotten. Princes and These impressions, as we learn from deputies had publicly sat in judgment the following narrative, Leonardo, on an impeached Pope; and the de- with much good sense and judgment, tail of his crimes, and his consequent endeavoured to do away. deposition, must have occasioned in “ I remember,” says he, “only a the minds of thinking men, most per- few days before Martin's departure. I plexing doubts and difficulties, as to was with him in his chamber, togeiber ihe high question of the infallibility, with one or two of his chamberlains, which had been hitherto supposed to and no one else. He was walking stamp the principles and the actions of from his library to the window which the father of the faithful.

overlooks the gardens, when, after Though Martin V.was thus elevated taking a few turns in silence, he sudto the pontifical dignity, he was not, denly came up to me, and looking for the present, enabled to take pos- stedfastly in my face, and raising his session of the territories appended to arm a little, he said, · Pope Martin it this exalted station. The dominions seems is not worth a farthing.' I inof the church were the prey of factions stantly recognized the words, for they and of petty usurpers, which he had were the burden of a song made upon not the means to repress.

On the him, and wbich runs tbus in the dissolution of the council, therefore, Italian language, wbich event took place on the 22d of

Papa Martino April, 1418, he repaired to Geneva,

Non vale un qua:rino. whence, after crossing the Alps, he What, said I, have these children's went to Mular and to Mantua, where trifles reached the ears of your holihe remained till the end of the year, ness? He made no reply, but repeatwhen he proceeded to Florence. I ed 'Pope Martin is not worth a far

At the Tuscan capital, Martin was thing.' Being then aware of the irrireceived by the constituted authori- i tation of his feelings, I determined, ties with every token of respect; and through my regard for the honour of soon after his arrival in Florence, he the state, to soothe them to the best

* L'Enfant's Council of Constance, vol. ii.

| Ibid. p. 161.

Leon, Aret. Reram. Italic. Historia, p. 259.

p. 162.

♡ Ibid.

of my ability. I therefore took the 1420, he expressed his obligations to liberty to say to him :—"No state, most them for their protection and assistholy father, has bestowed upon your- tance, and recounted the fortunate self and the holy see, such signal ser- circumstances which had occurred to vices as those which you have received him during his abode in their capital, from the Tuscan republic. You came in the very order which Leonardo bad to Florence at a time, when you were suggested to him.t destitute of temporal dominion. At From Florence, Martin repaired to that period, the country was so fully Rome, which was now cager to open occupied by your adversaries, that its gates to receive him. On this acinstead of proceeding hither for Ferra- cession of prosperity, the Pontist, who ra, by way of Bologna, which was in had been long sensible of the abilities a state of rebellion, you were obliged and the integrity of Leonardo, wished to take a long circuit through Ravenna to engage him in his service. But and Forli. During your residence in though his offers of remuneration were Florence, the other towns of the papal splendid, and his promises of adterritory have yielded to your autho- vancement highly flattering, he was rity; and Bologna has submitted. unable to tempt the learned Florentine And these happy effects have been again to enter into the Roman chanbrought about by the interposition of cery. In the year 1426, Leonardo had the Tuscan state, which, by procuring an opportunity of renewing his friendfor your holiness the aid of Braccio di ly intercourse with the Pontiff, as he Montone, has enabled you to reduce was then sent to Rome, as envoy from your rebellious subjects to obedience, the Tuscan state, to negociate, under so that your power is now most widely the mediation of his holiness, a peace extended. During your residence between the Florentine republic and here, also, the Spanish cardinals, de- the Duke of Milan. serting the cause of Benedict, have This employment was the prelude come to you in person, to offer you to more permanent honours ; for, in their homage; and, which is of the the year 1427, he was promoted to the utmost importance, John XXII. con office of Secretary to the Republic, cerning the regularity of whose abdi- which he held, occasionally in concation, as having been obtained by junction with other municipal honours, force, doubts might have been enter- till the time of his death, which event tained, trusting his person to the ho took place in the year 1444.Ş door of our republic, bas thrown him The loss of Leonardo was regarded self at your feet, and acknowledged by his countrymen as a public calayou as the true Pontiff. As this event, mity; and, in testimony of their rewhich was speedily followed by his spect for his memory, they resolved death, clears away all doubts as to to inter his remains with extraordi. your title to the pontificate, so you nary honours. Reviving, then, an anmay be assured that John would have cient custom, they invited the public ventared to take this step in no other functionaries, and the ambassadors city but this, where he was sheltered from foreign states, to attend his obfrom danger by the security of public sequies. In the midst of this august and of private friendship. These are assemblage, Gianozzo Manetti, a schothe advantages which you have de- lar of considerable reputation, prorived from your residence in the city nounced an eulogium on his virtues, of Florence; and permit me to remark and concluded the ceremony by encirto your holiness, that it is hardly con- cling the brows of his deceased friend sistent with the dignity of your cha- | with a crown of laurel. Leonardo was racter to suffer the remembrance of buried in the church of Santa Croce ; them to be obliterated by resentment and the spot where his remains were at an idle song."

deposited is still marked by a monuMartin listened to this remonstrance ment, which bears the following inwith patience. It should seem, also, scription, that he profited by the advice of Leopardo, for, on taking lease of the Florentine magistracy, in the year




Leon. Aret. Rerum Italic. Historia, p. 259.

+Ibid. No. 38.--Vol. IV.

Mehi Vita Leon. Aret. p. xliv. $ Ibid. p. xlv.

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