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ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM.
of the most important parts of logic. was the father of one of those capThe wrong opinions which we form in tives. The son soon made himself infancy, when, our reason being im- known to the father, but their distress mature, we were consequently inca-at meeting in such a place was grievpable of estimating the value of the ous to both. The young man, howevidence upon which they were form- ever, considering that the slavery his ed; and the attachment we form for father was doomed to, would inevithem, from being so long our own; tably put an end to his life, requested bias and pervert the mind strangely, that he might be released, and he by causing us to set a greater value would himself cheerfully remain in his upon such evidence than it deserves, room. This the Moors readily grantand by that means producing a wrong ed; but when the Dey was made acappropriation of the judgment. quainted with the circumstance, he
From the course of nature, it is ne- caused the son likewise to be set at cessary that we should pass through a liberty, as the reward of Glial affecstate of infancy before we arrive attion. the stage of manhood ; and that the growth of reason should be progressive; so that the forming of a number of erroneous opinions may be perbaps inevitable: yet this is no excuse for ARCHBISHOP Potter gave bis son the continuing to embrace them, when we two livings of Wrotham and Lydd, in have sufficient reason to detect their Kent, both good ones, but out of the fallacy ; but, on the contrary, it is our statutable distance, being above forty duty strictly to examine them, before miles apart, whereas the canons rewe admit ihem as evidence, upon quired them to be within twenty miles which to ground our present reason- of each other. A clergyman applying ing. As the perverters of the judg- to the Archbishop for a dispensation ment (as I said before) are so nume to bold two benefices, was informed rous, the specimens which I have that they were out of distance. “If given of them must suffice, so that I your Grace,” says the divine, “ will will hasten to conclude, by saying, do me the favour to look into the map that if the happiness of our lives de- of Kent, you will lind that the livings pend in a great measure upon the cor- in question are much nearer each rectness of our opinions, and upon other than Lydd and Wrotham.”—This our minds being free from prejudice, argument was conclusive, and the the means of obtaining this end must dispensation was granted. be well worthy of our consideration. These means I hope I have proved to he, a strict examination of the evi- SUFFERINGS OF THE HORSE AND ASS. dence adduced in support of a proposition, to which we are going to give Horæ Subsecivæ.-No. 3, our assent; and an apportioning of the degree of our assent to the degree
“ I have ever thongbt, that there is a cer of evidence which appears upon that tain degree of justice due from man to the examination. A due attention to
creatures, as from man to man; and tha
excessive use of the creature's labour is an these points, it has been, therefore, injustice for which he must account.”. the end of this essay to inculcate.
JUDGE HALE. Whether I have in any means attained to this, I know not: if I have, it will It is with feelings of disgust and indigbe a source of sincere pleasure to me; nation, that I have often observed the --if I have not, the goodness of my most useful animals groaning beneath ioteptions must console me.
the cruelty of their inbuman masters ; R. W. who do not even seem to consider it
their duty to be merciful to those beasts that serve them.
The most inoffensive of all animals,
the patient Ass, is daily exposed to As some Christian captives at Algiers, all the accumulated bardships that a who bad been ransomed, were going wanton and ignorant barbarity can to be discharged, the cruizers brought inflict: he is generally the property of in a Swedish vessel. Among the crew some merciless wretch, who considers
care and indulgence as horses, they when he first became acquainted with
him as an outcast of natare ; and Indeed, the treatment that mun although he serves his master with Horses receive, is a wretched recus unequalled humility and patience, yet pense for their unparalleled docilin the sad unjust wages of his servi- and dispatch. Perhaps there are : tude are nothing but scourges, famine, breeds of horses in the world that es and oppression. He is often laden claim a superiority over the Britid, with heavy burdens, far, very far be- in regard to elegance of form, asta yond his strength, and if, after exert-ishing strength, and quickness ing all his powers, and straining every dispatch. Among many well authe nerve to perform what is impossible, ticated English racers, which har du he remains invincible and immove- surprised us with their astonishing able; all the cruelties which sin can fleetness, may be particularized the of
២. invent, and tyranny execute, are un celebrated Childers, Bay Malton, and deservedly inflicted upon him. He Eclipse. The first of these was us is scourged and buffeted with merci-doubtedly the swiftest horse ever less severity.
known to man; and the exploits be Asses, when very young, are capa- has performed are truly astonishing
. ble of being taught a variety of exer- He ran against all the celebrated a cises, but the education of these useful horses of the time in wbich he lived little animals is totally neglected; and and was allowed to be the champion although they display a considerable of the course; having never been share of beauty, sprightliness, and known to fail bearing away the prize. agility, yet these good qualities are The general progress of this just soon lost under the tyrannical domi- celebrated horse, was no less the nion of the monster, man. The ass is eigbty-two feet and a half in a second strong, affectionate, humble, patient, of lime; a degree of swiftness which and tranquil. How often do we see no other horse has ever been capable
be his strength exhausted with fatigue, of performing. Bay Malton has been his affection treated with contempt, known to run four miles in the short and his bumility, patience, and tran- space of seven minutes and forty-four quillity, with insult, negligence, and seconds. Eclipse was much deeter be oppression! In short, his services are than Bay Malton; and, excepting indispensable, and his sufferings incal-Childers, the swiftest racer ever culable ; his days are spent in toil known. He died at the age of twentyand drudgery, and his nights in saun-six. The surprising horse, Matchem, tering about naked lanes and high arrived at the age of thirty-two years,
be roads, where he vainly endeavours to which may be considered as very collect a sufficiency of food to satisfy great for a race-horse, and indeed for the cravings of his appetite, and to any kind of horse, when we take into support that strength on which his consideration the brutal system of diabolical master places so much re- cruelty to which they are so often er: liance.
posed. The following authenticated We find the finest breed of asses in instance of longevity in a draught
20E Spain, and this can be attributed to horse, will, I am persoaded, be very
DIE nothing but the great care and indul acceptable to a certain class of readgence which are there bestowed upon ers. It is an extract from a letter these industrious animals. Pliny in which I received from my father a fer forms us, that a male ass, of Romish days ago. breed, was sold for a sum exceeding • The horse to which you allade in three thousand pounds of English mo- your's of the 19th, and which has ex pey; and Varro also assures us, that cited so much interest in Manchester, he knew a she-ass in Rome, that was is now living at Latchford, sold for nearly five hundred pounds. rington.
Your friend, Mr. Henry These facts (and many others might Harrison, of Young-street, assures
pro be advanced) will surely be sufficient me that he has known this horse for a to convince any reasonable person, period of at least fifty-nine years. We that if asses were to receive the same Harrison was about fifteen
that he was
, ; he stately, and beautiful animais, than then about two years of age.is we generally find them, in a state of master, perhaps grateful for his faith
ful services, took him from the Gin
sheel at the Old Quay, a few months and thus bemorrhage is prevented. igo, since which he has not worked.". But it often bappens that the vessels The absurd and cruel practice of are too deeply situated, or the bemorricking the tails of horses, still con- rhage too profuse to be stopped by inues to be prevalent in Europe; and these means; besides, it frequently ( am sorry it is in my power to own, occurs, that the hot iron brings off the that this scandalous practice is sanc- burnt part along with it, or the eschar ioped by some of the most eminent separates when we are least upon our horse-dealers, as well as private gen- guard; and under any one of these temen. What Christian beart can circumstances, the hemorrhage may bear to see an ignorant and unmer- prove fatal. ciful farrier take up his operating To conclude: Every scientific veteknife, and cut three or four dreadful rinary surgeon knows, that he can put gashes in the tail; to see him dress an almost immediate stop to the most the wounds with powdered rosin, spi- profuse hemorrhage by the applicarits of wine, and other stimulating tion of ligatures, or the different modi. substances; or to see him lap up the fications of compression. I am of mangled tail, still weltering in blood, opinion, that the painful operation of and fix it in the machine or pulley, firing is performed too often, and that where it is to remain powerfully sus- hundreds of horses are appually lamed pended for seven or eight days? | througb the laziness of blacksmiths, Again, might not the barbarous cus- who too often accommodate feet to tom of curtailing or docking the tails shves, instead of shoes to the feet. *f horses be dispensed with? In de Were I to endeavour to enumerate priving them of their tails, do we not the sufferings of the brute creation, expose them to many inconveniences ? owing to the perversion of human and is it not violating the cause of nature, I should soon tire the most humanity, to rob them of the only serious readers, and should at last be app ndage which nature has given obliged to relinquish the task, as one them as a security against the cease-of fathomless extent. If we examine less appoyance of insects, and to hide the domestic economy of an hundred those parts which she never intended families, we shall find that ninety of to be exposed ?
them suffer their children to make There are so many advocates for the poor inoffensive animals the subjects practice of curtailing, that I do not of their pastimes: thus their tender expect any thing I could say, would minds become inured to an inveterate be of much moment; but it is impos- habit of cruelty ; and by the continusible for any humane mind to tolerate ance of barbarous sovereignty, many the barbarous and very painful means children, who would have been valucommonly employed to stop the bleed- able members of society, had they ing from the vessels necessarily di- received a pious education, become vided in the operation. Instead of the professed enemies of every Chrisapplying a tourniquet to stop the flow tian virtue. of blood into the lower end of the
J. NUTTALL. principal artery, and removing the Handsworth Woodhouse, tail with a sharp knife, it is customary
8th Oct. 1822. to cut it off at one stroke with a kind of large shears, and to stop the hemorrhage by applying a red-hot searingiron. How much more rational, and exceedingly less painful, would it be, to secure the blood-vessels by tying
Samuel Taylor Coleridge. them with ligatures! Secondary he- The father of this ingenious, but ecmorrbage would then be effcctually centric writer, was a divine and prevented; excessive inflammation schoolmaster at Ottery St. Mary, in would seldom occur; and the cure Devonshire, where he died at the age would always be much more speedy of sixty-two, in 1782, when this, his and certain. In accidental wounds of youngest son, was only nine years superficial or even deep-seated vessels, old. Mr. Coleridge was a man of farriers almost universally apply ac- considerable abilities, an excellent taal or potential cauteries, which form instructor, and an exemplary parish an eschar of greater or less extent, priest; but having a large family of
MEMOIRS OF THE LIVING POETS OF
will, I trust, excuse this tribute of re- ) College, in 1792, and he distinguished
thirteen children, and only a small collection to a man, whose severities, kinaseb vicarage, he could leave behind him even now, not seldom furnish the bot a scanty provision for their sup-dreams by which blind fancy would port. To lessen the burden, a pre- fain interpret to the mind the painful sentation was procured for the admis- sensations of distempered sleep; bat sion of the subject of this sketch into neither lessen nor dim the deep sense Christ's Hospital, where he was placed of my moral and intellectual obliga in the grammar school, at the same tions. He sent as to the university time that the present Dr. Middleton, excellent Latin and Greek scholars
, Bishop of Calcutta, was in the first and tolerable Hebraists. Yet our form. Coleridge made a rapid pro- classical knowledge was the least of itsti gress in Latin and Greek, for which the good gifts which we derived from me he often received laudatory expres- bis zealous and conscientions datorsions of kindness from Mr. Bowyer, age. He is now gone to his final the bead master, who was a perfect reward, full of years, and full of bó leat Orbilius, and, though friendly to poetic nours, even of those honours which composition, a bitter enemy to all were dearest to bis heart, as gratefully extraneous ornament, and mythologic bestowed by that school, and still allusions. “ When we were studying binding him to the interest of that the Greek tragic poets,” says Mr. school in which he had been himself Coleridge," he made us read Shak- educated, and to wbich, doring his speare and Milton as lessons; and whole life, he was a dedicated bethey were the lessons too which re- | ing.” quired most time and trouble to bring At the age of sixteen, Coleridge up, so as to escape his censure. I began to feel the poetic furor in learned from him that poetry, even earnest, by reading Bowles's Soppets, for that of the loftiest, and seemingly which he copied and imitated, more that of the wildest odes, had a logic to the satisfaction of his companions of its own, as severe as that of science, than of his good old schoolmaster, and more difficult, because more sub- who would fain have restrained his tle, more complex, and dependent on ardour, and drawn him to more sober more fugitive causes. In our English pursuits. But our young student was compositions, for the last three years an enthusiast more ways than one; of our school education, he shewed and besides bis flights in the airy po mercy to phrase, metaphor, or regions of poesy, he ventured to image, unsupported by a sound sense, plunge into the depths of metaphysies or where the same sense might have and mysticism.
Instead of storing been conveyed with equal force and his mind with facts and firm concludignity in plainer words. Lute, harp, sions, he busied his imagination with and lyre, muse and inspirations, Pe- attempting to penetrate the obscuri gasus, Parnassus, and Hippocrene, ties of Behmenisio, to discover the were all an abomination to him." occult qualities of nature, and the “There was one custom of our mas- hidden springs by wbich the material ter's, which I cannot pass over in and spiritual worlds are connected
, silence, because I think it worthy of This propensity to abstraction was imitation. He would often permit our attended with an itch for disputation, theme exercises, under some pretext always choosing those dark and doubt of want of time, to accumulate, till ful subjects, which the divine poet each lad bad four or five to be looked describes the fallen angels beguiling over. Then, placing the whole num- the eternal hours with, in their doleber abreast on his desk, he would ask fol state, yet “found no end, in warthe writer why this or that sentence dering mazes lost." might not have found as appropriate A mind so-unhinged, sitting and a place under this or that thesis; and doubting between ai ry fanaticism and if no satisfactory answer was returned, gloomy scepticism, was ill prepared and two faults of the same kind were to endure academic discipline, and found in one exercise, the irrevocable the routine of scientific exercises verdict followed; the exercise was torn, and another, on the same sub- ratory to the taking
necessary to be gone through prepar ject, ordered to be produced, in addi-University of Cambridge. Our tion to the tasks of the day. The
reader thor was admitted a student of Jespero
a degree in the
bimself there as a good Greek scholar, posing the whole in a more beautiful by some epigrams in that language, manner, parged from all dross, and which, if they did not procure him rendered incapable of being again any honour from Alma Mater, attract- made the instrument of mischievous ed the notice of Dr. Parr, who en- spirits. rolled the author among the Cantabri Nothing but ignorance of human giap worthies, worthy of record in one nature could excuse this strange frenof his long tails to the long Spital zy, in minds warm with sensibility, sermon, preached by him at Christ and, as it should seem, in love with Charch, in 1800. Mr. Coleridge was virtue. But it never struck them that destined by his friends for his father's man, in the social state, is the creaprofession, but the French revolution ture of discipline and habits, over marred their hopes; and he left the whom authority is necessary, not only University, with nothing but his ta- to keep him from doing injury to lents to rely upon, and the world others, but to train him in the path of before him where to choose his place rectitude for his own happiness. The of rest.” Unfortunately, that place he first thing, however, which entered has never yet found; thus affording into the heads of our political perfecanother melancholy instance of genius tionists, was, the idea of carrying ronning to seed, for want of a proper civilization to the highest pitch of direction at the beginning, and of excellence, without laws or distincjudgment in its progress.
tions, the consequence of which would Previous to leaving Cambridge, our have been universal anarchy, unless young poet published an historic dra- the passions could have been eradima, as he called it, entitled “The cated. Tbat, however, was imposFall of Robespierre,” which consisted sible, and so our author found it by in fact of nothing more than a versifi- his own experience, for on going to cation of the most passionate speeches Bristol, to join Lovell and Southey in delivered in the National Convention. their pantisocratical scheme, he felt This piece, however, shewed the turn in love with one of the three Miss which Coleridge bad now taken, and Frickers, whose romantic spirits and that instead of pursuing the even and personal charms subjugated the trium- · profitable course of study, necessary virate of reformers to such a degree, to qualify him for the sacred profes- that marriage ensued, and the ideal sion, he was immersed over head and republic vanished. cars in the stormy billows of revolu During the residence of Mr. Coletionary politics.
ridge at Bristol, he delivered, in the That he was capable of better things, large room over the corn market, a appeared from a small collection of course of lectures, in which he ensonnets and other poems, which about forced with great energy, the necessity the same time he ventured to send into of revolutions, even in this country, the world, and which met with a more upon the basis of equal rights and favourable reception from the crities, community of property. Here, also, than his drama. Coleridge now quit- he published some political pamphlets, ted the University, to engage in the of a like tendency, and began a perimore than Herculean labour of purify- odical paper, called The Watching society from the corruptions of man,” the object of which was to rouse kingcraft and priesteraft, for such, in the people to active exertions in the the judgment of the New Lights, were restoration of liberty, and the estaall the existing political institutions in blishment of a perfect commonwealth. Europe, not excepting those of Eng- To promulgate these doctrines, and land." This was a bold project for a procure subscribers for the support of youth of one-and-twenty; but the his literary undertaking, he became times were out of joint, and every an itinerant lecturer on politics; but unfledged stripling fancied himself though he met with many hearers in qualified, and even called upon, to public houses, who approved of his turn legislator, to change fornis of principles, and bowed to him as an government, and to restore man to oracle, he found very few disposed to his primeval dignity.
The moral | contribute their mite towards the difworld was to be reduced to its ele- fusion of knowledge. This was rather ments, that the wisdom of these rege- hard, considering how liberally Dr. nerators might be displayed in recom- Priestley had been aided at Birming. No. 47.–VoL, IV.