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knowledge, they are both taken in under incest: and that still for the same convenience of expressing under one name, and reckoning of one species, such unclean mixtures as have a peculiar turpitude beyond others; and this to avoid cicumlocutions and tedious descriptions.

§. 8. A moderate skill in different lan- Whereof the guages will easily satisfy one of the truth of intranslat,

able words this, it being so obvious to observe great store of divers of words in one language, which have not languages any that answer them in another. Which are a proof, plainly shows, that those of one country, by their customs and manner of life, have found oçcasion to make several complex ideas, and given names to them, which others never collected into specific ideas. This could not have happened, if these species were the steady workmanship of nature, and not collections made and abstracted by the mind, in order to naming, and for the convenience of communication. The terms of our law, which are not empty sounds, will hardly find words that answer them in the Spanish or Italian, no scanty languages; much less, I think, could any one translate them into the Caribbee or Westoe tongues: and the Versura of the Romans, or Corban of the Jews, have no words in other languages to answer them: the reason whereof is plain, from what has been said. Nay, if we look a little more nearly into this matter, and exactly compare different languages, we shall find, that though they have words which in translations and dictionaries are supposed to answer one another, yet there is scarce one of ten amongst the names of complex ideas, especially of mixed modes, that stands for the same precise idea, which the word does that in dictionaries it is rendered by. There are no ideas more common, and less compounded, than the measures of time, extension, and weight, and the Latin names, hora, pes, libra, are without difficulty rendered by the English names, hour, foot, and pound: but yet there is nothing more evident, than that the ideas à Roman annexed to these Latin names, were very far different from those which an English man expresses by those English Oues. And if either of Hh 2


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these should make use of the measures that those of the other language designed by their names, he would be quite out in his account. These are too sensible proofs to be doubted ; and we sball find this much more so, in the names of more abstract and compounded ideas, such as are the greatest part of those which make up moral discourses: whose names, when men come curiously to compare with those they are translated into, in other languages, they will find very few of them exactly to correspond in the whole extent of their signiti. cations.

$. 9. The reason why I take so particular species to be notice of this, is, that we may not be mismade for taken about genera and species, and their communica. essences, as if they were things regularly tion.

and constantly made by nature, and had a real existence in things; when they appear, upon a more wary survey, to be nothing else but an artifice of the understanding, for the easier signifying such collections of ideas, as it should often have occasion to communicate by one general term; under which divers particulars, as far forth as they agreed to that abstract idea, might be comprehended. And if the doubtful signification of the word species may make it sound harsh to some, that I say the species of mixed modes are made by the understanding ; yet, I think, it can by no-body be denied, that it is the mind makes those abstract complex ideas, to which specific names are given. And if it be true, as it is, that the mind makes the patterns for sorting and naming of things, I leave it to be considered who makes the boundaries of the sort or species; since with me species and sort have no other difference than that of a Latin and English idiom.

$. 10. The near relation that there is In mixed modes it is between species, essences, and their general the name name, at least in mixed modes, will farther that ties the

appear, when we consider that it is the combination

name that seems to preserve those essences, together, and makes it and give them their lasting duration. For a species. the connexion between the loose parts of


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those complex ideas being made by the mind, this union, which has no particular foundation in nature, would cease again, were there not something that did, as it were, hold it together, and keep the parts from scattering. Though therefore it be the mind that makes the collection, it is the name which is as it were the knot that ties them fast together. What a vast variety of different ideas does the word triumphus hold together, and deliver to us as one species? Had this name been never made, or quite lost, we might, no doubt, have had descriptions of what passed in that solemnity: but yet, I think, that which holds those different parts together, in the unity of one complex idea, is that very word annexed to it; without which the several parts of that would no more. be thought to make one thing, than any other show, which having never been made but once, had never been united into one complex idea, under one denomination. How much therefore, in mixed modes, the unity necessary to any essence depends on the mind, and how much the continuation and fixing of that unity depends on the name in common use annexed to it, I leave to be considered by those who look upon essences and species as real established things in nature.

§. 11. Suitable to this, we find, that men speaking of mixed modes, seldom imagine or take any other for species of them, but such as are set out by name : because they being of man's making only, in order to naming, no such species are taken notice of, or supposed to be, unless a name be joined to it, as the sign of man's having combined into one ideá several loose ones; and by that name giving a lasting union to the parts, which could otherwise cease to have any, as soon as the mind laid by that abstract idea, and ceased actually to think on it. But when a name is once annexed to it, wherein the parts of that complex idea have a settled and permanent union; then is the essence as it were established, and the species looked on as compleat. For to what purpose should the memory charge itself with such compositions, unless it were by abstraction to make them general ? And to what purpose make them

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general, unless it were that they might have general names, for the convenience of discourse and communication ? Thus we see, that killing a man with a sword or a hatchet, are looked on as no distinct species of action : but if the point of the sword first enter the body, it passes for a distinct species, where it has a distinct name ; as in England, in whose language it is called stabbing but in another country, where it bas not happened to be specified under a peculiar name, it passes not for a distinct species. But in the species of corporeal substances, though it be the mind that makes the nominal essence; yet since those ideas which are combined in it are supposed to have an union in na. ture, whether the mind joins them or no, therefore those are looked on as distinct names, without any operation of the mind, either abstracting or giving a name to that complex idea.. .. For the ori. $. 12. Conformable also to what has ginals of been said concerning the essences of the mixed species of mixed modes, that they are the modes, we

· creatures of the understanding, rather than look no far.' ther than the the works of nature : conformable, I say, mind, which to this, we find that their names lead our also shows thoughts to the mind, and no farther. them to be. When we speak of justice, or gratitude, we the work. manship of frame to ourselves no imagination of any the under thing existing, which we would conceive; standing. but our thoughts terminate in the abstract ideas of those virtues, and look not farther : as they do, when we speak of a horse, or iron), whose specific ideas we consider not, as barely in the inind, but as in töings themselves, which afford the original patterns of those ideas. But in mixed modes, at least the most considerable parts of them, which are moral beings, we consider the original patterns as being in the mind; and to those we reter for the distinguishing of particular beings under names. And hence I think it is, that these essences of the species of mixed modes are by a more particular name called notions, as, by & peculiar right, appertaining to the understanding.

$. 13. Hence likewise we may learn, why the complex ideas of mixed modes are

Their being

made by the commonly more compounded and decom

understand. pounded,' than those of natural substances. ing without Because they being the workmanship of the patterns understanding, pursuing only its own ends,

shows the

reason why and the conveniency of expressing in short they are só those ideas it would make known to ano- compounded. ther, it does with great liberty unite often into one abstract idea things that in their nature have no coherence; and so, under one term, bundle together a great variety of compounded and decompounded ideas. Thus the name of procession, what a great mixture of independent ideas of persons, habits, tapers, orders, motions, sounds, does it contain in that complex one, which the mind of man has arbitrarily put together, to express by that one name? Whereas the complex ideas of the sorts of substances are usually made up of only a small number of simple ones; and in the species of animals, these two, viz. shape and voice, commonly make the whole nominal essence.

. 14. Another thing we may observe Names of from what has been said, is, that the names mixed modes of mixed modes always signify (when they stand always have any determined signification) the real for

nification, there for iheir real

essences. essences of their species. For these abstract ideas being the workmanship of the mind, and not referred to the real existence of things, there is no supposition of any thing more signified by that name, but barely that complex idea the mind itself has formed, which is all it would have expressed by it: and is that on which all the properties of the species depend, and from which alone they all flow: and so in these the real and nominal essence is the same; which of what concernment it is to the certain knowledge of general truth, we shall see hereafter.

$. 15. This also may show us the rea- Why their son, why for the most part the names of names are mixed modes are got, before the ideas they

usually got

before their stand for are perfectly known. Because

there being no species of these ordinarily
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