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But your lordship proves it to be the same body by these three Greek words of the text, tè idior cūpa, which your lordship interprets thus, * « That proper body which belongs to it,' Answer. Indeed by those Greek words sò idior owp.az, whether our translators have rightly rendered them · his own body,' or your lordship more rightly that proper body, which belongs to it,' I formerly understood no more but this, that in the production of wheat, and other grain from seed, God continued every species distinct ; so that from grains of wheat sown, root, stalk, blade, ear, grains of wheat were produced, and not those of barley; and so of the rest, which I took to be the meaning of 'to every seed his own body.' No, says your lordship, these words prove, That to every plant of wheat, and to every grain of wheat produced in it, is given the proa per body that belongs to it, which is the same body with the grain that was sown. Answer. This, I confess, I do not understand ; because I do not understand how one individual grain can be the same with twenty, fifty, or an hundred individual grains ; for such sometimes is the in. crease.
But your lordship proves it. For, says your lordship, + Every seed having that body in little, which is afterwards so much enlarged; and in grain the seed is corrupted before its germination; but it hath its proper organical parts, which make it the same body with that which ic grows up to. For although grain be not divided into lobes, as other seeds are, yet it hath been found, by the most accurate observations, that upon separating the membranes, these seminal parts are discerned in them; which afterwards grow up to that body which we call corn. In which words I crave leave to observe, that your lordship supposes that a body may be enlarged by the addition of an hundred or a thou. Sand tiines as much in bulk as its own matter, and yet continue the same body; which, I confess, I cannot understand.
But in the next place, if that could be so; and that the plant, in its full growth at harvest, increased by a thousand or a million of times as much new matter added to it, as it had when it lay in little concealed in the grain that was sown, was the very same body ; yet I do not think that your lordship will say, that every minute, insensible, and inçon ceivably small grain of the hundred grains, contained in that little organized seminal plant, is every one of them the very same with that grain which contains that whole seminal plans, and all those invisible grains in it. For then it will follow, tha: one grain is the same with an hundred, and an hundred discioco grains the same with one : which I shall be able to assent tù, when I can conocive, that all the wheat in the world * but one grain..
For I beseech you, my lord, consider whac it is St. Paul here spcaks of: it is plain he speaks of that which is sown and dies, i. e, the grain that the husbandman takes out of his barn to sow in his field. And of this grain St. Paul says, 'that it is not that body that shall be.' These two, viz.' that which is so vn, and that body that shall be,' are all the bodies that St. Paui here speaks of, to represent the agreement or difference of men's bodies after the resurrection, with those they had before they died. Now, I crave leave to ask your lordship, which of thesc two is that little invisible seminal plant, which your lordship hicre speaks of ? * 2d Ausw.
Ibid, - Aa3
Does your lordship mean by it the grain that is sown? But that is not what St. Paul speaks of: he could not mean this embryonated little plant, for he could not denote it by these words, that which thou sowest,' for that he says must die: but this little embryonated plant, contained in tie seed that is sown, dies not: or does your lordship mean by it, the body that shall be?' But neither by these words, the body that shall be,' can St. Paul be supposed to denote this insensible little embryonated plant; for that is already in being, contained in the seed that is sown,' and therefore could not be spoken of under the name of the body that shall be. And therefore, I confess, I cannot see of what use it is to your lord. ship to introduce here this third body, which St. Paul mentions not, and to make that the same, or not the same with any other, when those which St. Paul speaks of, are, as I humbly conceive, these two visible sensible bodies, the grain sown, and the corn grown up to ear; with neither of which this insensible embryonated plant can be the same body, unless an insensible body can be the same hody with a sensible body, and a little body can be the sanie body with one ten thousand, or an hundred thou. sai) cimes as big as itself. So that yet, I confess, I see not the resurrec, tion of the same body proved, from these words of St. Paul, to be an article of faith.
Your lordship goes on ; *"St. Paul indeed saith, That we sow not that body that shall be; but he speaks not of the identity, but the perfection of it. Here my understanding fails me again : for I cannot understand St. Paul to say, That the same identical sensible grain of wheat, which was sown at seed-time; is the very same with every grain of wheat in the ear at harvest, that sprang from it: yet so I must understand it, 10 make iç prove, that the same sensible body that is laid in the grave, shall be the very same with that which shall be raised at the resurrection. For I do not know of any seminal body in little, contained in the dead car. case of any man or woman, which, as your lord hip says, in seeds, having its proper organical parts, shall afterwards be enlarged, and at the re, surrection grow up into the same man. For I never thought of any sced or seminal paris, either of plant or animal, so wonderfully improved by the Providence of God,' whereby the same plant or animal should beyet itself ; nor ever heard, that it was by Divine Providence designed to produce the same individual, but for the producing of future and dis, tince individuals, for the continuation of the same species,
Your lordship’s next words are, t . And although there be such a dif. ference from the grain itself, when it comes up to be perfect corn, with suot, stalk, blade, and ear, that it may be said to outward appearance pot to be the same body; yet with regard to the seminal and organical parts it is as much the same, as a man grown uly, is the same with the embryo in the womb.' Answer. It does not appear, by any thing I can find in the text, that St. Paul here compared the bedy produced, with the semi. nal and organical parts contained in the grain it sprang from, but with the whole sensible grain that was grown. Microscopes had not then dis. covered the little embryo plant in the seed ; and supposing it should have been revealed to St. Paul (though in the scripture we find little re. velation of natural philosophy) yet an argument taken from a thing per. fectly unknown to the Corinthians, whom he writ to, could be of 10
manner of use to them; nor serve at all either to instruct or convince them. But granting that those St. Paul writ to, knew it as well as Mr. Lewenhoek; yet your lordship thereby proves not the raising of the same body : your lordship says, it is as much the same (I crave leave to add body) (as a man grown up is the same' (same what, I beseech your lordship?) with the embryo in the womb. For that the body of the embryo in the womb, and body of the man grown up, is the same body, I think no one will say ; unless he can persuade himself, that a body, that is not the hundredth part of another, is the same with that other; which I think no one will do, till having renounced this dangerous way by ideas of thinking and reasoning, he has learnt to say, that a part and the whole are the same.
Your lordship goes on : * And although many arguments may be used to prove, that a man is not the same, because life, which depends upon the course of the blood, and the manner of respiration and nutrition, is so different in both states; yet that man would be thought ridiculous, that should seriously affirm, that it was not the same man. And your lordship says, I grant that the variation of great parcels of matter in plants, alters not the identity : and that the organization of the parts in one coherent body, partaking of one common life, makes the identity of a plant.' Answer. My lord, I think the question is not about the same man, but the same body. For though I do say, + (somewhat differently from what your lordship sets down as my words here) · That that which has such an organization, as is fit to receive and distribute nourishment, so as to continue and frame the wood, bark, and leaves, &c. of a plant, in which consists the vegetable life, continues to be the same plant, as long as it partakes of the same life, though that life be communicated 'to new particles of matter, vitally united to the living plant:' yet I do not remember, that I any where say, that a plant, which was once no bigger than an oaten straw, and afterwards grows to be above a fathom about, is the same body, though it he still the same plant,
The well-known tree in Epping forest, called the King's Oak, which from not weighing an ounce at first, grew to have many tons of timber in it, was all along the same oak, the very same plant; but nobody, I think, will say that it was the same body when it weighed a ton, as it was when it weighed but an ounce, unless he has a mind to signalize himself by saying, that that is the same body, which has a thousand particles of different matter in it, for one particle that is the same; which is no better than to say, that a thousand different particles are but one and the same particle, and one and the same particle is a thousand diffe. rent particles; a thousand times a greater absurdity, than to say half is whole, or the whole is the same with the half; which will be improved ten thousand times yet farther, if a man shall say (as your lordship seems to me to argue here) that that greai oak is the very same body with the acorn it sprang from, because there was in that acorn an oak in little, which was afterwards (as your lordship expresses it) so much enlarged, as to make that mighty tree. For this embryo, if I may so call it, or oak in little, being not the hundredih, or perhaps the chou. sandth part of the acorn, and the acorn being not the thousandth part of the grown oak, it will be very extraordinary to prove the acorn and the grown oak to be the same body, by a way wherein it cannot be * 2d Answ, + Essay, b. 2, c. 27. 5. 4.
pretended; that above one particle of an hundred thousand, or a million, is the same in the one body, that it was in the other. From which way of reasoning, it will follow, that a nurse and her sucking child have the same body, and be past doubt, that a mother and he: infant have ebe same body. But this is a way of certainty found out to establish the articles of faith, and to overturn the new method of certainty that your lordship says “I have started, which is apt to leave men's minds more doubtful than before.'
And now I desire your lordship to consider of what use it is to you in the present case, to quote out of my Essay these words, . That par. 'taking of one common life, makes the identity of a plant;' since the question is not about the identity of a plant, but about the identity of a body': it being a very different thing to be the same plant, and to be the same body. For that which makes the same plant, does not make the same body; the one being the partaking in the same continued vegetable life, the other the consisting of the same numerical par, ticles of matter. And therefore your lordship’s inference from my words above quoted, in these which you subjoin *, seems to me a very strange one, viz.' So that in thing capable of any sort of life, the identity is con, sistent with a continued succession of parts; and so the wheat grown up, is the same body with the grain that was sown.' For I believe, if my words, from which you infer, And so the wheat grown up is the same body with the grain that was sown,' were put into a syllogism, this would hardly be brought to be the conclusion.
But your lordship goes on with consequence upon consequence, though I have not eyes acute enough every where to see the connexion, till you bring it to the resurrection of the same body. The connexion of your lordship's words + is as followeth ; And thus the alteration of the parts of the body at the resurrection, is consistent with its identity, if its orga. nization and life be the same; and this is a real identity of the body, which depends not upon consciousness, From whence it follows, that to make the same body, no more is required, but restoring life to the orga. nized parts of it.' If the question were about raising the same plant, I do not say but there might be some appearance for making such an infe. rence from my words as this, “Whence it follows, that to make the same plant, no more is required, but to restore life to the organized parts of it.' But this deduction, wherein, from those words of mine that speak only of the identity of a plant, your lordship infers, there is no more required to make the same body, than to make the same plant, being too subtle for me, I leave to my reader to find out.
Your lordship goes on and says, I that I grant likewise, That the « identity of the same man consists in a participation of the same col.
tinued life, by constantly fleeting particles of matter in succession, • vitally united to the same organized body.' Answer, I speak in these words of the identity of the same man, and your lordship thence soundly concludes; so that there is no difficulty of the sameness of the body. But your lordship knows, that I do not take these two sounds, man and body, to stand for the same thing, nor the identity of the man to be the same with the identity of the body.
But let us read out your lordship's words. So that there is no difficulty as to the sameness of the body, if life were continued; and if, by
* 3d Ans. + Ibid, Ibid. 1 Ibid.
divine power, life be restored to that material substanee which was beo fore united, by a reunion of the soul to it, there is no reason to deny the identity of the body, not from the consciousness of the soul, but from that life which is the result of the union of the soul and body. . .
If I understand your lordship right, you in these words, from the pas sages above quoted out of my book, argue, that from those words of mine it will follow, that it is or may be the same body, that is raised at the resurrection. If so, miy lord, your lordship has then proved, that my book is not inconsistent with, but conformable to this article of the resur rection of the same body, which your lordship contends for, and will have to be an article of faith: for though I do by no means deny that the same bodies shall be raised at the last day, yet I see nothing your lordship has paid to prove it to be an article of faith.
But your lordship goes on with your proofs, and says, * " But St. Paul still supposes, that it must be that material substance to which the soul. was before united. For, saith he, “it is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption; it is sowr: in dishonour, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body." Can such a material substance, which was never united to the body, be said to be sown in corruption, and weakness, and dishonour? Eicher, therefore, he must speak of the same body, or his meaning cannot be comprehended.' l answer, Can such a material substance, which was never laid in the grave, be said to be sown,'&c.? For your lordship-says, +You do not say the same individual particles, which were united at the point of death, shall be raised at the last day ;' and no other particles are laid in the grave; but such as are united at the point of death; either there. fore your lordship must speak of another body, different from that which was sown, which shall be raised, or else your meaning, I think, cannot be comprehended.
But whatever be your meaning, your lordship proves it to be St. Paul's meaning, that the same body shall be raised, which was sown, in these following words, For what does all this relate to a conscious principle? Answ. The scripture being express, that the same person should be raised and appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive according to what he had done in his body; it was very well suited to common apprehensions (which refined not about particles that had been vitally united to the soul') to speak of the body which each one was to hare after the resurrection, as he would be apt to speak of it himself. For it being his body both before and after the resurrection, every one ordi. narily speaks of his body as the same, though in a strict and philosophical sense, as your lordship speaks, it be not the very same. Thus it is no impropriety of speech to say, 'this body of mine, which was formerly strong and plump, is now weak and wasted,' though in such a sense as you are speaking here, it be not the same body. Revelation declares nothing any where concerning the same body, in your lordship's sense of the same body, which appears not to have been thought of. The apostle directly proposes nothing for or against the same body, as necessary to be believed: that which he is plain and direct in, is his opposing and condemning such curious questions about the body, which could serve only to perplex, not to confirm what was material and necessary for them to believe, viz. a day of judgment and retribution to men in a future state ; and therefore it is * 2d Ans. # Ibid.