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idea of motion, but change of distance with other beings that are considered as at rest; and finding, that spirits, as well as bodies, cannot operate but where they are, and that spirits do operate at several tiines in several places; I cannot but attribute change of place to all finite spirits; (for of the infinite spirit I speak not here.) For my soul being a real being, as well as my body, is certainly as capable of changing distance with any other body, or being, as body itself; and so is capable of motion. And if a mathematician can consider a certain distance, or a change of that distance between two points, one may certainly conceive a distance, and a change of distance between two spirits: and so conceive their motion, their approach or removal, one from another. . • $. 20. Every one finds in himself, that his soul can think, will, and operate on his body in the place where that is; but cannot operate on a body, or in a place an hundred miles distant from it. Nobody can imagine that his soul can think, or move a body at Oxford, whilst he is at London ; and cannot but know, that, being united tu his body, it constantly changes place all the whole journey between Oxford and London, as the coach or horse does that carries him, and I think may be said to be truly all that while in motion; or if that will not be allowed to afford us a clear idea enough of its motion, its being separated from the body in death, I think, will; for to consider it as going out of the body, or leaving it, and yet to have no idea of its motion, sèeins to me impossible.
$. 91. If it be said by any one, that it cannot change place, because it hath none, for the spirits are not in loco, but ubi; I suppose that way of talking will not now be of much weight to many, in an age that is not much disposed to admire, or suffer themselves to be deceived by such unintelligible ways of speaking. But if anyone thinks there is any sense in that distinction, and that it is applicable to our present purpose, I desire him to put it into intelligible English; and then from thence draw a reason to show, that immaterial spirits are not capable of motion. Indeed motion cannot be
attributed to God; not because he is an iminaterial, but because he is an infinite spirit.
6. 22. Let us compare then our complex Idea of soul idea of an immaterial spirit with our com- and body plex idea of body, and see whether there be compared. any more obscurity in one than in the other, and in which most. Our idea of body, as I think, is an extended solid substance, capable of communicating motion by impulse : And our idea of soul, as an immaterial spirit, is of a substance that thinks, and has a power of exciling motion in body, by willing or thought. These, I think, are our complex ideas of soul and body, as contra-distinguislied; and now let us examine which has moșt obscurity in it, and difficulty to be apprehended. I know, ihat people, whose thoughts are im
mersed in inatter, and have so subjected their minds to o their senses, that they seldom reflect on any thing beif yond them, are apt to saythey cannot comprehend phone â thinking thing, which perhaps is true : but I affum, en ons when they consider it well, they can no more compreillus hend an extended thing. But, I $. 23. If any one say, he knows not a
is not Cohesion of what it is thinks in him; he means, he solid parts in andere knows not what the substance is of that body as hard land be thinking thing: no more, say I, knows he to be conwell, what the substance is of that solid thing.
of that solid thinc ceived as weiz Farther, if he says he knows not how he a soul.. he diete thinks: I answer, neither knows he how croppa lo he is extended; how the solid parts of body are inese United, or cohere together to make extension. For
though the pressure of the particles of air may ac not count for the cohesion of several parts of matter, that are ii are grosser than the particles of air, and have pores
i less than the corpuscles of air; yet the weight, or prespielii sure of the air, will not explain, nor can be a cause of do the coherence of the particles of air themselves. And time if the pressure of the æther, or any subtiler matter
than the air, may unite, and hold fast together the parts vel of a particle of air, as well as other bodies; yet it canbe and not make bonds for itself, and hold together the parts Moralist that make up every the least corpuscle of that materia
subtilis. subtilis. So that the hypothesis, how ingeniously soever explained, by showing, that the parts of sensible bodies are held together by the pressure of other external insensible bodies, reaches not the parts of the æther itself: and by how much the more evident it proves, that the parts of other bodies are held together by the external pressure of the æther, and can have no other conceivable cause of their cohesion and union, by so much the more it leaves us in the dark concerning the cohesion of the parts of the corpuscles of the æther itself; which we can neither conceive without parts, they being bodies, and divisible; nor yet how their parts cohere, they wanting that cause of cohesion, which is given of the cohesion of the parts of all other bodies.
$. 24. But, in truth, the pressure of any ambient fluid, how great soever, can be no intelligible cause of the cohesion of the solid parts of matter. For though such a pressure may hinder the avulsion of two polished superficies, one from another, in a line perpendicular to them, as in the experiment of two polished marbles; yet it can never, in the least, hinder the separation by a motion, in a line parallel to those surfaces. Because the ambient fuid, having a full liberty to succeed in each point of space, deserted by a lateral mo. tion, resists such a motion of bodies so joined, no more than it would resist the motion of that body, were it on all sides environed by that fluid, and touched no other body: and therefore, if there were no other cause of cohesion, all parts of bodies must be easily separable by such a lateral sliding motion. For if the pressure of the æther be the adequate cause of cohesion, wherever that cause operates not, there can be no cohesion. And or since it cannot operate against such a lateral separation, (as has been shown) therefore in every imaginary plane, intersecting any mass of matter, there could be no more cohesion, than of two polished surfaces, which will do always, notwithstanding any imaginable pressure of a to fluid, easily slide one from another. So that, perhaps, how clear an idea soever we think we have of the ex. tension of body, which is nothing but the cohesion of one
solid parts, he that shall well consider it in his mind, may have reason to conclude, that it is as easy for him to have a clear idea, how the soul thinks, as how body is extended. For since body is no farther, nor otherwise extended, than by the union and cohesion of its solid parts, we shall very ill comprehend the extension of body, without understanding wherein consists the union and cohesion of its parts; which seems to me as incomprehensible, as the manner of thinking, and how it is performed.
S. 25. I allow it is usual for most people to wonder how any one should find a difficulty in what they think they every day observe. Do we not see, will they be ready to say, the parts of bodies stick firmly together? Is there any thing more common? And what doubt can there be made of it? And the like, I say, concerning thinking and voluntary motion : Do we not every moment experiment it in ourselves ? and therefore can it be doubted? The matter of fact is clear, I
confess; but when we would a little nearer look into bith it, and consider how it is done, there I think we are pro at a loss, both in the one, and the other; and can as of a little understand how the parts of body cohere, as how FTATU we ourselves perceive, or move. I would have any one la te intelligibly explain to me, how the parts of gold, or el s brass, (that but now in fusion were as loose from one Questo another, as the particles of water, or the sands of an police hour-glass) come in a few moments to be so united, jolts and adhere so strongly one to another, that the utmost
force of men's arms cannot separate them: a considere prese ing man will, I suppose, be here at a loss, to satisfy his 23,7% own, or another man's understanding. heepot. y. 26. The little bodies that compose that fluid we al open call water, are so extremely small, that I have never point heard of any one, who by a microscope (and yet I have dhe heard of some that have magnified to ten thousand;
nay, to much above a hundred thousand times) prepresiune tended to perceive their distinct bulk, figure, or mohai tion: and the particles of water are also so perfectly up of loose one from another, that the least force sensibly ve separates thein. Nay, if we consider their perpetual
motion, we must allow them to have no cohesion one with another; and yet let but a sharp cold come, they unite, they consolidate, these little atoms cohere, and are not, without great force, separable, lle that could find the bonds that tie these heaps of loose little bodies together so firmly; he that could make known the cement that makes them stick so fast one to another : would.discover a great, and yet unknown secret: and yet when that was done, would he be far enough from making the extension of body (which is the cohesion of its solid parts) intelligible, till he could show wherein consisted the union, or consolidation of the parts of those bonds, or of that cement, or of the least particle of matter that exists. Whereby it appears, that this primary and supposed obvious quality of body will be found, when examined, to be as incomprehensible as any thing belonging to our minds, and a solid extended substance as hard to be conceived as a thinking immaterial one, whatever difficulties some would raise against it.
$. 27. For, to extend our thoughts a little farther, that pressure, which is brought to explain the cohesion of bodies, is as unintelligible as the cohesion itself. For if matter be considered, as no roubt it is, finite, let any one send his contemplation to the extremities of the universe, and there see what conceivable hoops what bond he can imagine to hold this mass of matter in so close a pressure together; from whence steel has its firmness, and the parts of a diamond their hardness and indissolubility. If matter be finite, it must have its extremes; and there must be something to hinder it from scattering asunder. If, to avoid this difficulty, any one will throw himself into the supposition and abyss of infinite matter, let him consider what light her thereby brings to the cohesion of body, and whether he be ever the nearer making it intelligible, by rewa solving it into a supposition, the most absurd and most ** incomprehensible of all other: So far is our extension of body (which is nothing but the cohesion of solid parts) from being clearer, or more distinct, when we ons
ist it. For, Thich is