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sires arising from wrong

power, have been most

judgment.

modified

58, 59. Our judgment of pre 11. Several words seeming to

sent good or evil always

signify action, signify

right.

but the effect.

60. From a wrong judgment 12. Mixed modes, made also

of what makes a neces.

of other ideas.

•; · sáry part of their happi.
lo . ness.

61, 62. A more particular account

CHAP. XXIII.

of wrong judgments.

63. In comparing present and Of the complex ideas of substances,

future,

SECT.

64, 65. Causes of this.

66. In considering conse.

1. Ideas of substances, how

made..

quences of actions.

67. Causes of this.

2. Our idea of substance in

Wrong judgment of what

general.

3, 6. Of the sorts of substances,

is necessary to our hap-

4. No clear idea of substance

piress.

69. We can change the agree.

... in general.

ableness or disagreeable.

5. As clear an idea of spirit

• ness in things.

as body.

70. Preference of vice to vir.

7. Powers a great part of

tue, a manifest wrong

our complex idea of sub,

.. stances.

· judgment.

8. And why.

71-73. Recapitulation.

9. Three sorts of ideas make

our complex ones of sub.

CHAP. XXII.

'stances.

10. Powers make a great part

"'. Of mixed modes.

of our complex ideas of

.. substances..

SECT.

II. The now secondary qua.
1. Mixed modes, what.

lities of bodies would dis.
2. Made by the mind.

appear, if we could disco.
3. Sometimes got by the ex.

ver the primary ones of
plication of their names.

their mirtute parts.
4. The name ties the parts

12. Our faculties of discovery

of the mixed modes into

suited to our state.

one idea. --!

13. Conjecture about spirits.

. 5. The cause of making

14. Complex ideas of sub.

'mixed modes,

· '. stances.

6. Why words in one lan.

P.15. Idea of · spiritual sub.
guage have none answer.

stantes, as clear as of

ing in another,

bodily substances.

1. Avd laiguages change.

16. No idea of abstract sub.

8. Mixed modes, where they

stance.

exist.

17. The cohesion of solid

9. How we get the ideas of

parts, and impulse, the

mixed modes.

primary ideas of body.

10. Motion, thinking, and

18. Thinking

1.

rit.

18. Thinking and motivity 5. Charge of relation may

the primary ideas of spi.

be without any change

in the subject !

19–21. Spirits capable of mo. 6. Relation only betwixt two

tion.

things.

22. Idea of soul and body 7. All things capable of re.
compared.

lation.
23—27. Cohesion of solid parts in 8. The ideas of relation
body, as hard to be con.

clearer ofren, than of the
ceived, as thinking in a

subjects related.
soul.

9. Relations all terminate in

28, 29. Cominunication of motion

simple ideas.

by impulse, or by thought, 10. Terms leading the mind
equally intelligible.

beyond the subjects deno.

30. Ideas of body and spirit · minated, are relative.

compared.

H. Conclusion.

31. The notion of spirit in.

volves no more difficulty

in it than that of body. CHAP. XXVI.

32. We know: nothing beyond

Of cause and effat, and other

our simple ideas.

relations.

33-35. Idea of God.

SECT.

36. No ideas in our complex

1. Whence their ideas got.
one of spirits, but those

2. Creation,generation, mak.

got from sensation or re.

ing alteration.

ffection,

3, 4. Relations of time.

37. Recapitulation.

5. Relations of place and

extension.

.. 6. Absolute terms ofren stand

CHAP. XXIV.

for relations.

Of collective ideas of substance.

SÉCT.

1. One idea.

CHAP. XXVII.

2. Made by the power of Of identity and diversity.

composing in the mind. SECT......,

3. All artacial things are 1. Wherein identity con.

collective ideas.

sists.

2. Identity of substances.

Identity of modes.

CHAP. XXV.

3. Principium individuatio.

Of relation,

nis.

SECT.

. 4. Identity of vegetables.

1. Relation, what.

15. Identity of anjinals.

2. Reiations, without corre. 1.6. Identity of man..

lative terms, not easily 7. Identity suited to the

perceived.

idea.

3. Some seemingly absolute 8. Same man.

terms contain relations.

9. Personal identity.

4. Relation different from 10. Consciousness makes per.

the things related.

sonai identity.

II. Personal

nis.

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ness.

11. Personal identity in change 19. We have ordinarily as

of substances.

clear (or clearer) notions

12–15. Whether in the change of

of the relation, as of its

thinking substances.

foundation.

16. Consciousness makes the 20. The notion of the rela.

sane person,

tion is the same, whether

17. Self depends on conscious.

the rule, any action is

compared to, be true or

18-20. Objects of reward and pu.

false.

nishment.

21, 22. Difference between iden.

tity of man and person.

CHAP. XXIX.

23–25. Consciousness alone makes

of clear and distinct, obscure and

self.

confused ideas.

26, 27. Person a forensic term.

28. The difficulty from. ill use SECT.

of names.

1. Ideas, some clear and dis.

| 29. Continuedexistence makes

tinct, others obscure and

identity.

confused.

2. Clear and obscure, ex.

plained by sight.

CHA P. XXVIII.

3. Causes of obscurity.

Of other relations,

4. Distinct and confused,

what.

SECT.

5. Objection.

1. Proportional,

6. Confusion of ideas, is in

2. Natural.

reference to their names.

3. Instituted.

7. Defaults which make con.

fusion. First, complex

5. Moral good and evil.

ideas made up of too

6. Moral rules.

few simple ones.

7. Laws.

8. Secondly, or its simple

S. Divine law, the measure

ones jumbled disorderly

of sin and duty.

together.

9. Civil law, the measure of

Thirdly, or are mutable

crimes and innocence.

or undetermined:

10, 11. Philosophical law, the

. Confusion, without re.

measure of virtue and

ference to names, hardly

vice.

conceivable.

12. Its inforcements, com. II. Confusion concerns al.

mendation, and discredit,

ways two ideas.

13. These three laws the 12. Causes of confusion.

rules of moral good and 13. Complex ideas may be

evil.

distinct in one part, and

14, 15. Morality is the relation of

confused in another.
actions to these rules.

14. This, if not heeded, causes
16. The denominations of ac.

confusion in our argu.

tions often mislead us.

ings.

17. Relations innumerable.

15. Instance in eternity.

18. All relations terminate in 16. - Divisibility of mat.

simple ideas,

CH A P.

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TENTS.

19. We have ordinarily as

clear (or clearer) notions
of the relation, as of its

foundation.
20. The notion of the rela.

tion is the same, whether
the rule, any action is
compared to, be true or
false.

CHAP. XXX.

2. Metaphysical truth cona

tains a tacit proposition.

Of real and fantastical ideas.

3. No idea, as an appear.

SECT.

ance in the mind, true

1. Real ideas are conforma.

or false.
ble to their archetypes,

4. Ideas referred to any thing

2. Simple ideas all real.

may be true or false.

3. Complex ideas are volun. s. Other men's ideas, real

tary combinations.

existence, and supposed

4. Mixed modes, made of

real essences, are what

consistent ideas, are real.

men usually refer their

s. Ideas of substances are

ideas to.

real, when they agree 6 8. The cause of such re.

with the existence of

ferences.

things.

9. Simple ideas may be false

in reference to others of

the same name, but are

CHAP. XXXI.

least liable to be so

10. Ideas of mixed modes

Of adequate and inadequate

ideas.

most liable to be false in

this sense.

SECT.

11. Or at least to be thought

1. Adequate ideas are such

false.

as perfectly represent their 12. And why.

archetypes.

13. As referred to real exist.

2. Simple ideas all ade.

ences, none of our ideas

quate.

can be false, but those of

3. Modes are all adequate.

substances.

4. 5. Modes in reference to set. 14, 16. First, simple ideas in

tled names, may be in.

this sense not false, and

adequate.

why.

6, 7. Ideas of substances, as re.

15. Though one man's idea of

ferred to real essences, not

blue should be different

adequate.

from another's.

8-11. Ideas of substances, as

17. Secondly, modes not

collections of their quali-

false.

ties, are all inadequate.

18. Thirdly, Ideas of suba

12. Simple ideas ixtura, and

stances, when false.

19. Truth or falsehood always

13. Ideas of substances are

supposes affirmation or ne.

(KTURA, and inadequate.

gation.

14. Ideas of modes and rela.

20. Ideas in themselves nei.

tions are archetypes, and

ther true nor false.

cannot but be adequate.

11. But ase false, First, when

judged agreeable to ano-

CHA P. XXXII.

ther man's idea without

Of true and false ideas.

being so.

22. Secondly, When judged

to agree to real existence,

1. Truth and falsehood pro.

when they do not. .

perly belongs to propo.

23. Thirdly, When judged

sitions,

adequate without being so.

24. Fourthly,

adequate.

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24. Fourthly, When judged to 5. From a wrong connexion
represent the real essence.

of ideas.
35. Ideas, when falsc..

6. This connexion how made. 26. More properly to be call. 7, 8. Some antipathies an effect ed right or wrong. '

of it. 27. Conclusion.

9. A great cause of errours. 10-12. Instances.

13. Why time cures some disCHAP. XXXIII.

orders in the mind, which

reason cannot. Of the association of ideas. 14-16, Farther instances of the SECT.

effects of the association . 1. Something unreasonable in

of ideas. most men.

17. Irs influence on intellec 2. Not wholly from self. ..

tual habits. love.

18. Observable in different
-3. Nor from education,

sects.
4. A degree of madness.' 19.. Conclusion.

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BOOK III.

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Of Words. ... CHAP. I.

5. Secondly, To the reality of Of words or language in general.

things. .

. 6. Words by use readily excite SECT.

ideas. · . 1. Man fitted to form articu.

7. Words often used without
late sounds.

signification.
2. To make them signs of 8. Their signification perfecto
ideas.

ly arbitrary.
3, 4. To make general signs.
5. Words ultimately derived
from such as signity.sensi.

CHA P. III.
.. ble ideas.
6. Distribution.

Of general terms.
SECT.

1. The greatest part of words
CHA P. II.

general. Of the signification of words.

2. For every particular thing

to have a name, is impossiSECT.

· ble.
1. Words are sensible signs ne. 3, 4. And useless.

cessary for communication. 5. What things have proper 2, 3. Words are the sensible signs

names,
of his ideas who uses them. 6-8. How general words are
4. Words often secretly refer • made.

red, First, to the ideas in . 9.. General natures are nothing
other men's minds,

but abstract ideas.

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10. Why

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