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CHA P. XIII.
Of Simple Modes, and first of the Simple Alodes of
$. 1. THOUGH in the foregoing part Simple
T I have often mentioned simple Modes,
Those modifications of any one simple idea (which,
s. 2. I shall begin with the simple idea Idea of
Space and length between any two beings, without extension. considering any thing else between them,
19. 3. This le dark by fans.it less of
is called distance; if considered in length, breadth, and thickness, I think it may be called capacity. The term extension is usually applied to it in what manner soever considered.
. $. 4. Each different distance is a diffe
rent modification of space; and each idea of any different distance, or space, is a simple mode of this idea. Men for the use, and by the custom of measuring, settle in their minds the ideas of certain stated lengths, such as are an inch, foot, yard, fathom, mile, diameter of the earth, &c. which are so many distinct ideas made up only of space. When any such stated lengths or measures of space are made familiar to men's thoughts, they can in their minds repeat them as often as they will, without mixing or joining to them the idea of body, or any thing else ; and frame to themselves the ideas of long, square, or cubic, feet, yards, or fathoms, bere amongst the bodies of the universe, or else beyond the utmost bounds of all bodies; and by adding these still one to another, enlarge their ideas of space as much as they please. The power of repeating, or doubling any idea we have of any distance, and adding it to the former as often as we will, without being ever able to come to any stop or stint, let us enlarge it as much as we will, is that which gives us the idea of iinmensity.
5. 5. There is another modification of Figure.
me this idea, which is nothing but the relation which the parts of the termination of extension, or circumscribed space, have amongst themselves. This the touch discovers in sensible bodies, whose extremities come within our reach; and the eye takes both from bodies and colours, whose boundaries are within its view; where observing how the extreinities termi' nate either in straight lines, which meet at discernible ·angles ; or in crooked lines, wherein no angles can be perceived ; by considering these as they relate to one another, in all parts of the extremities of any body or space, it has that idea we call figure, which affords to the mind infinite variety. For besides the vast number of different figures, that do really exist in the
coherent masses of matter, the stock that the mind
0. 6. For the mind having a power to Fiore
The same that it can do with straight lines, it can also do with crooked, or crooked and straight together ; and the same it can do in lines, it can also in super- . ficies : by which we may be led into farther thoughts of the endless variety of figures, that the mind has a power to make, and thereby to multiply the simple inodes of space. 9.7. Another idea coming under this
Place. head, and belonging to this tribe, is that we call place. As in simple space, we consider the re.. lation of distance between any two bodies or points ; so in our idea of place, we consider the relation of distance betwixt any thing, and any two or more points, which are considered as keeping the same distance one with another, and so considered as at rest : for when we find any thing at the same distance now, which it was yesterday, froin any two or more points, which have not since changed their distance one with another, and with which we then compared it, we say it hath kept
the same place; but if it hath sensibly altered its distance with either of those points, we say it hath changed its place : though vulgarly speaking, in the common notion of place, we do not alivays exactly observe the distance from these precise points ; but from larger portions of sensible objects, to which we consider the thing placed to bear relation, and its distance from which we have some reason to observe.
$. 8. Thus a company of chess-men, standing on the saine squares of the chess-board, where we left them, we say they are all in the same place, or unmoved; though perhaps the chess-board hath been in the mean time carried out of one room into another; because we compared them only to the parts of the chess-board, which keep the same distance one with another. The chess-board, we also say, is in the same place it was, if it remain in the same part of the cabin, though perhaps the ship, which it is in, sails all the while : and the ship is said to be in the same place, supposing it kept the same distance with the parts of the neighbouring land ; though perhaps the earth hath turned round ; and so both chess-men, and board, and ship, have every one changed place, in respect of remoter bodies, which have kept the same distance one with another. But yet the distance from certain parts of the board, being that which determines the place of the chess-men; and the distance from the fixed parts of the cabin (with which we made the comparison) be
ing that which determined the place of the chess-board ; . and the fixed parts of the earth, that by which we de
termined the place of the ship; these things may be
men consider and determine of this place, by reference to those adjacent things which best served to their pres sent purpose, without considering other things, which to answer another purpose would better determine the place of the same thing. Thus in the chess-board, the use of the designation of the place of each chess-man, being determined only within that checquered piece of wood, it would cross that purpose, to measure it by any thing else: but when these very chess-men are put up in a bag, if any one should ask where the black king is, it would be proper to deterinine the place by the parts of the room it was in, and not by the chessboard; there being another use of designing the place it is now in, than when in play it was on the chessboard, and so must be determined by other bodies. So if any one should ask, in what place are the verses which report the story of Nisus and Euryalus, it would be very improper to determine this place, by saying, they were in such a part of the earth, or in Bodley's library: but the right designation of the place would be by the parts of Virgil's works; and the proper answer would be, that these verses were about the middle of the ninth book of his neid ; and that they have been always constantly in the same place ever since Virgil was printed; which is true, though the book itself hath moved a thousand times; the use of the idea of place here being to know in what part of the book that story is, that so upon occasion we may know where to find it and have recourse to it for use.
§. 10. That our idea of place is nothing else but such a relative position of any thing, as I have before mentioned, I think is plain, and will be easily adrnitted, when we consider that we can have no idea of the place of the universe, though we can of all the parts of it; because beyond that we have not the idea of any fixed, distinct, particular beings, in reference to which we can imagine it to have any relation of distance; but all beyond it is one , unitorm space or expansion, wherein the mind finds no variety, no inarks. For to say, that the world is somewhere, means no more than that it does exist : this, though a