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Page 11. And now to return to my Hawks.
This portion of Walton's work may be illustrated by referring to the ensuing volumes, which are considered as being the best that are extant on the subject of Falconry. "The Booke of Falconrie," by GeorgeTurberville, an English Poet, born about 1530: 1575.4to. "The Gentleman's Academie," Lond. 1595, 4to., and " Country "Contentments," Lond. 1675, 4to. by Gervase Markham. "Fal"conrie," in Two Books, Lond. 1658, 4to.; and "Another New "and Second Book of Falconry," Lond. 1618, 4to. by Simon Latham. It must be remembered, that the eulogies on Hawking and Hunting are not in the first edition of the Complete Angler. Hawkins.
Page 14. The Fichat—the Fulimart—the Mouldwarp.
It has been ascertained that the first two of these names were anciently applied indiscriminately to the Ferret and the Polecat; but the Fitchet, Fitchel, or Fitchew, is a name most commonly appropriated to the Weasel, and it is supposed is derived of the Teutonic Visse, Fisse, or Vitche, an extremely rank animal of the Mustela or Weasel genus. Todd. Jamieson. Dr. Skinner in his Etymologicon Linguae Anglicans, Lond. 1671. fol., under the word Fulimart, states that " it is a word which is in no place excepting "in the book called the Complete Angler:" but it may be observed that Juliana Barnes, in the Book of St. Albans, speaks of the Fulmarde as one of the rascal beasts of chase; and Strutt in his "Sports and Pastimes of the People of England," Lond. 1801, p. 14, places it as one of the animals of rank, or fetid flight, which leave a foul scent behind them. In Dr. Adam Lyttleton's Dictionary, it is called " a fetid mouse of Pontus;" and Phillips in his "World of Words," explains it to be a species of Polecat, in which sense the word Fowmarte is still used in Scotland. Francis Junius calls it " Fullmer, that is the same as Polecat, a Marten. It is "from the Teutonic Ful, Fetid, and Merder, a Marten, Also in the "Belgic it is now called Visse, which was formerly Fiest, from it's "offensive smell." Etymologicum Anglicanum. Oxon. 1743. fol. The Mouldwarp is a name of the Mole, compounded of the AngloSaxon words Molde, dust, and Weorpan, to cast. "We call" says Verstegan," in some parts of England, a mole, a Mouldwarp, which "is as much as to say a cast-earth."
Page ibid. How could Cleopatra have feasted Mark Antony.
Vide North's Translation of Plutarch's Lives, No. 35, of the preceding list, page 982. Marginal letter D, of that volume.
Page 15. One of the qualifications that Xenophon, &c.
The edition of the Cyropaedia used by Walton, was in all probability that marked No. 44 in the preceding list; and the passage referred to is in the 1st Book. In the translation of this Classic by the Hon Maurice Ashley, Loud 1728, 8vo. it will be found in vol. i. p. 84.
Page 17. Moiei—uho was called the Friend of God.
This title in the Scriptures is usually applied to Abraham, vide 2 Chron. ii. 7, Isaiah ill. 8, James ii. 23; but in Exodus ixxiii. 11, it is said that " God spake to Moses as a Man to his Friend." Walton has another passage similar to the line cited above, on p. 37. The reference relating to the learning of Moses, mentioned on page 17, is to Acts vii. 22; and that which alludes to his meekness, is to Numbers xiii. 3. Cruden.
Page 19. He that shall view the writing! of Macrobbis or Varro.
This passage occurs first, in the Second edition of the Complete Angler, 1655; and the materials of it are taken, with little alteration in the language, from Lib. iv, Sec. 6, p- 434, of Dr. Hakewill's Apology, &c.; vide the preceding list, No, 21. Aurelius Macrobiui, above-mentioned, was a Latin writer of the fourth century, who is by some supposed to have been a Christian, and Chamberlain to the Emperor Theodosius II. His principal production is the " Saturnalia Convivia," which is in seven books, and consists of a miscellaneous collection of antiquities and criticisms, supposed to have been derived from the conversation of some learned Romans, during the Saturnalian Festival. The circumstances mentioned in the text will be found in Lib. ii. cap. ii. of that work. He also wrote a Commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis, and many other books which are now lost; but his latinity is often corrupt, as he was not born in a part of the Roman Empire where the Latin language was spoken. Lempriere. The passage taken from Varro, will be found in his Book "De Re Rustica," Lib. iii. cap. ivii.
Page ibid. A most learned Physician, Dr. Wharton.
Dr. Thomas Wharton was descended from an ancient family in Yorkshire, and was originally educated at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; from whence, however, he removed to Trinity College, Oxford, before the breaking out of the Civil Wars. On the commencement of the rebellion, he came up to London, and practised Physic under the eminent Dr. John Bathurst, until 1646 ; when he again returned to his College, and through the recommendation of Lord Fairfax, was created M. D. early in 1647. In 1650, he was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians in London ; and it is said, was afierwards made Professor of Physic at Gresham College, where he lectured in 1653. His residence was in Aldersgate Street, and he remained in London throughout the whole of the last Plague of 1665. He died at his house already mentioned, in October, or as some assert, on the 15th of November, 1673. He published an excellent description of the Glands, written in Latin, which was printed at London in 1656, iivo. Amsterd. 1659. Hawkins. Wood's Athena. Edit. Bliss. Dr. Wharton's name was not inserted in the text at this place till the edition of 1676: and the First is entirely without the eulogy on water. It is worthy of remark, that the whole of these passages relating to Hawking, Hunting, and Angling, are copied almost verbatim, in a very popular and well known work, entitled " the Gentleman's Recreation;" nf which the first edition was printed in 1674, six years after the fourth edition of Walton's Angler; and that portion of the Gentleman's Recreation, which treats of Fishing, is merely an abstract of Walton's researches. Another imitation of this author, although in a much slighter degree, may be found in the Works of Bishop Horne, Edit, by W. Jones, Lond. 1809. 8vo. Vol. iv. p. 537, in a discourse composed at Brighthelmston, entitled " Considerations "on the Sea." This circumstance was communicated to the Editor by the Rev. Dr. J. T. Barrett, of Westminster.
Page 21. I see Theobald's House.
This favourite palace of King James I., formerly stood in a large Manor called Thebaudes, in the Hundred and County of Hertford, and the Parish of Cheshunt, somewhat north of the Ware road, about twelve miles from London. It was erected about the year 1559, by Secretary Cecil, afterwards Lord Treasurer Burghley. On the 27th of July 1564, Elizabeth made her first visit to the house, and having probably expressed her intention of repeating it, by her second progress to Theobald's on the 22d of September, 1571, it was considerably enlarged and improved. During her reign, the Queen went thither twelve different times; at some of which, the expenses of her entertainment amounted to from 2000/. to 3000/. On the death of Lord Burghley, he was succeeded at Theobald's by his son Robert, subsequently the Earl of Salisbury; who, on the 3rd of May 1603, entertained King James I. then on his journey to London to assume the English Crown. This costly entertainment was repeated in 1606, when that Sovereign was accompanied by Christiern IV., King of Denmark, and from these visits, King James became so great an admirer of Theobald's, that he at length exchanged for it the Palace of Hatfield; after which it became his favourite residence, and he died there on March the 27th, 1625. His son Charles also occasionally lived at Theobald's: he there received the Petition from the Parliament in 1642, and it was thence he went to assume the command of his army. In 1650, after a minute Parliamentary survey, and some disputes concerning it's sale, the greater part of Theobald's was taken down, and the amount produced by the sale of the materials reverted to the use of the army. About 1660, George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, received Theobald's by Patent from King Charles II.; but on the failure of male issue in the second Duke Christopher, the property again returned to the Crown. In 1689, King William III. issued a Patent granting it to William Den thick Earl of Portland; but about 1762, it was sold to George Prescott, Esq. from whom it has ultimately descended to Sir George Burton Prescott, Bart, the present possessor. Of the magnificence of the Palace at Theobald's, some idea may be formed from the particular descriptions given of it in the Life of Lord Burghley, in Peck's " Desiderata Curiosa;" that by Sir Paul Hentzner; that iu the " Voyages Celebres" of the Sieur Jean Albert de Mandelslo; that in the Parliamentary Survey of 1650, already mentioned; and also from a short notice in the "Description of Hertfordshire," by John Norden. All these, with several additional and interesting facts, will be found in the Rev. Dan. Lysons's "Environs of "London," Lond. 1796. vol. iv. 4to. pp. 29-39, and Clutterbuck's Hist, and Ant. of the County of Hertford, ii. pp. 87-95, whence the foregoing account has been abstracted. It remains to be added only, that the fragments of the old Theobald's House were taken down about 1765; that the present building stands on a rising ground about a mile to the North-west of the ancient scite; and that the View of the Palace given in the text, was copied by Mr. Tyson, from an ancient Tapestry preserved at Houghton in Norfolk. Theobald's House is not mentioned in the First Edition of the Complete Angler.
Page 23, Then first for the Antiquity of Angling.
At ihis place, in the First Edition of the Complete Angler, p. 12, there is a marginal reference to " J. Da. Jer. Mar." as the authorities which furnished this paragraph; which are certainly meant for John Davors, and Jervis or Gervase Markham. The former of these, some of whose beautiful verses appear on page 43, was in reality named Dennys; since those stanzas which in the First Edition of Walton, p. 35, are marked Jo. Da. afterwards extended into Davors, form a part of a very rare poem entitled "The Secrets of "Angling, by J. D., Esquire," first printed in octavo, in 1613. In a recent reprint of this highly curious work, appeared the following extract from the Books of the Stationer's Company. " 1612. "23°. Martij. Mr. Rog. Jackson entred for his copie under th'ands "of Mr. Mason and Mr. Warden Hooper a Book called the Se"Crete of Angling, teaching the choysest tooles, bates, and seasons "for the taking of any fish in Pond or River, practised and opened "in three books, by John Dennis, Esquire." The passage at present alluded to by Walton, will be found in that division of the Poem entitled '* The Author of Angling, Poetical fictions," and on p. 13 of the reprint of 1811, beginning " Then did Deucalion first "the art invent." The Stanzas which Piscator quotes on p. 43, will be found in the division called "a Worthy Answer," on p. 10. " O let me rather on the pleasant brinke," &c.; and in this stance, as in nearly every other, Walton has improved his Author. The passage referred to in Markham, will be found in his "Plea** sures of Princes, or Good Men's Recreations; containing a Dis"course of the General! Art of Fishing with an Angle or other"wise." Lond. 1614. 4to. Chap. 1. "Of Angling the Vertue, "Vse, and Antiquitie," p. 3. Sir John Hawkins supposed, that when Piscator is defining the mental character of a Fisherman, Walton had in his mind that singular Chapter in Markham's Country Contentments, on the subject of the "Angler's Apparel "and Inward qualities;'' but it is more probable that he alluded to those Stanzas contained in the third book of the Secrets of Angling, which are entitled " The Qualities of an Angler."
Page 24. In the Prophet Amos, mention is made of Fish-hooks.
Vide Chap, iv. 2. Canne, in his marginal references to this Chapter, refers to Jeremiah xvi. 16. " Behold I will send for many "fishers, saith the Lord, and they shall fish them," &c. The passage of Job which the text refers to, will be found in Chap. xli. 1, 2, and the 7th verse is also distantly allusive to the formation of hooks. Again, in Isaiah the word occurs in Chap, xxxvii. 29. "I "will put my hook in thy nose:" And also in Chap. xbt. 8, which Bishop Lowth translated
"And the fishers shall mourn, and lament;
"Isaiah, A New Translation," &c. by Robert
The common translation of King James reads " all they that cast "angle into the brooks shall lament." In Ezekiel xxix. 4, hooks are mentioned in connection with fishing, as the medium of catching the King of Egypt, who is represented under the figure of the Crocodile, lying in the midst of his rivers; and the word occurs again in Ezek. xxxviii. 4. The Prophet Habbakuk in Chap. i. 14-17, has an inference to hooks, but the word is commonly translated Angle. Hawkins.
Page ibid. In ancient times a debate hath arisen. &c . This was a favourite subject with the old Theological writers of Italy ; and the chief of their arguments with many references, are considered in "A Collection of Several Tracts of the Right Honourable Edward, Earl of Clarendon," Lond. 1727, fol. pp. 167205. This Tract was most probably written at Montpellier in March 1670. Hawkins. Walton however might probably allude to that rare Tract by J, Evelyn, Esq., which he wrote in answer to Sir Geo. Mackenzie, entitled "Public Employment, and an Active Life preferred to Solitude." Lond. 1667. 12mo. .