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Note. Pennant seems to have established this as a distinct species, and not the fry of the Salmon, which some hare supposed. One conclusive reason,amongst others, is, that they are furnished with roes, and are therefore to be considered as full-grown fishes. A similar inference may be made with respect to the White-Bail of the Thames.

S. Thymallus, Grayling Salmon. Chap. vi. page 132. Gray Salmon, with longitudinal dusky blue lines, and violet coloured Dorsal fin barred with brown.

Genus Esox, Pike.

Head somewhat flattened above. Mouth wide. Teeth sharp, in the jaws, palate, and tongue. Body lengthened. Dorsal and Anal fins, (in most species), placed near the tail, and opposite each other.

JE. Lucius, Common Pike. Chap. viii. page 149.

Grayish-olive Pike, with yellowish spots, and depressed subequal jaws.

Genus Cyprinus, Carp.

Mouth small and toothless. Teeth in the throat. Gill membrane 3 rayed. Ventral fins, in general, 9 rayed.

Note. It is remarkable, that of the 21 principal Fish which minister to the pleasure of the Angler, Ten belong to this single Genus.

C. Carpio, Common Carp. Chap. ix. page 164.

Yellowish-olive Carp, with wide Dorsal fin, with the third ray serrated behind.

C. Brama, Bream. Chap. X. page 170. Broad olivaceous Carp, with flesh-coloured Abdomen; smallish Dorsal fin, and 27 rays in the Anal fin.

C. Rutilus, Roach. Chap. xvn. page 218. Yellowish-silvery Carp, with olivaceous back. Dorsal fin brown, the rest reddish, and forked tail.

C. Tinea, Tench. Chap. xi. page 179.

Mucous blackish-olive Carp, with very small scales, and nearly even tail.

C. Barbus, Barbel. Chap. Xiv. page 199. Bluish-white Carp, with 4 beards, olive-coloured back, and the first ray of the Dorsal fin serrated on both sides. C. Jeses, Chub. Chap. II. page 55.

Silvery-bluish Carp, with olivaceous back, thick head, and rounded snout.

C. Leuciscus, Dace. Chap. xvii. page 219.

Yellowish-silvery Carp, with olivaceous back, Dorsal fin brown, the rest reddish, and forked tail.

C. Alburnus, Bleak. Chap. xv. page 205.
Silvery Carp, with olivaceous back, 20 rays in the Anal
fin, and forked tail.

C. Gobio, Gudgeon. Chap. xv. page 203.
Silvery-olive Carp, with the upper lip bearded, and the
Dorsal fin and tail spotted with black.

C. Phoxinus, Minnow. Chap. xvm. pages 230, 231.

Blackish-green Carp, with blue and yellow variegations; reddish-silvery Abdomen, and forked tail.





Previously to entering upon the following series of illustrative notes, it may be advantageous to state what were the books to which the Authors of the preceding work have referred in the course of it; and, so far as they now can be ascertained, to specify the probable editions which they consulted. By doing this, Walton's principal authorities will appear at one view; and by numbering each article separately, a connection will be formed between them and the following commentaries, without having the continual repetition of the title of any volume which may be referred to. Walton, by an admirable selection of his authors, was enabled to quote not only the best, most learned, and most popular writers of his own time, but he also was rendered capable of citing numerous ancient classics, both Greek and Latin, as well as the volumes of many eminent foreigners, whose productions were generally written in the last-mentioned language.

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The Complete Angler was, perhaps, fully as much as any other work in the English tongue, a progressive composition; since each succeeding edition, down to the Fifth,— which was the last published in the Author's life-time,— contained some variation, addition, or improvement, to those which preceded it. Though Walton certainly anticipated future editions of his most entertaining work, yet in the Preface to his First, which was afterwards considerably altered, he writes of such a circumstance with very great modesty. When speaking of the flies which are used for the different months, he says: "Of these (because no man "is born an Artist nor an Angler) I thought fit to give thee "this notice. I might say more, but it is not fit for this "place; but if this Discourse which follows, shall come "to a second impression, which is possible, for slight "books have been in this age observed to have that for"tune; I shall then for thy sake, be glad to correct what "is faulty, or by a conference with any to explain or "enlarge what is defective; but for this time I have "neither a willingness nor leisure to say more, than wish "thee a rainy evening to read this book in, and that "the east wind may never blow when thou goest a fishing. Farewel. Iz. Wa." He abundantly kept this promise, for the Second Edition, has Eight entirely new Chapters, and above an hundred pages more than the First) and the Fifth contains twenty pages more than the Fourth.*

It is from these variations, the most important of which will be found carefully preserved in the following notes, that a conception may be formed, of the editions used by

* The appearance of these various editions was in the following years, as in the succeeding notes they are referred to only by the number of the impression, First, 1653—Second, 1655—Third, 1664—Fourth, 1668—Fifth, 1676.

Walton, of the authors whom he cites; and it is from a careful collation of these earlier impressions, that some illustrations of the text have been recovered, from marginal notes which were afterwards omitted. Nor from the author only have such illustrations been compiled; but the editions of the Complete Angler by the Reverend Moses Browne and Sir John Hawkins, have also been consulted, and the collection formed into a brief, but comprehensive abstract of all. Brief indeed, the plan of the present volume required it, although it would in most instances, have been truly interesting, to have given the very words of the ancient and erudite authorities themselves, but these extracts extend occasionally to many pages. The reader has however the less to regret, since he will find upon a reference to Walton's originals, that he has so happily abbreviated mem, that in the words of Addison, he has "practised in the chemical method, "and given the virtue of a bulky draught in a few "drops." The man of literature will, notwithstanding, find the ensuing notes almost all which he can require, since they will serve as an index to many of the passages referred to in the numerous authors quoted; while for the general reader it is presumed, that there will be sufficient to amuse and guide him, without wearying his patience by the multiplication of quaint extracts, which he would neither value nor enjoy.

The works referred to in the Complete Angler, are presumed to be the following.

1. /Eliainis, Claudus: De Natura Aiiimalium libri xvn. Gr. Lat.

Pet. Gillio et Conr. Gesnero Interp. Lugd. 1565.16to.

2. Aldrovandus, Ulysses: De Piscibvs Libri v. et de Cetis lib.

viivs Bon. 1638. fol.

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