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der-working God our confidence is firm, and hence his great work of Reformation in the sixteenth century stands in need of no vindication. That many things of an objectionable character attached to the Reformation, was acknowledged by the Reformers themselves, who endeavored, with all their might, to prevent and remove them. Romanists may, therefore, consider those great men selfish, proud, haughty and fanatical, as in their blind zeal they always have done. They may cast odium upon them and their followers; may brand them as heretics and consign the whole Protestant Church to perdition ; what need we care ? “Is God for us, who can be against us ?”
Well might we tremble before the terrible anathemas of the Papacy, if her doctrine of the Church were true ; if she had the exclusive possession of the keys of heaven; if the Holy Spirit could be confined within the wall of a worldly-minded hierarchy; if she really were the all-sufficient store house of divine grace, and had the power to bestow that grace according to her own pleasure. Well might we tremble, if she indeed possessed the power to save the living and to rescue even the dead; all of which she elaims and professes to do. But is it not evident, that in this the Papal Church has assumed the place, office and power of Christ ? Nothing but blind presumption could have led her to exercise such transcending arrogance! Therefore the Lord has humbled her. But for us it is sufficient to know that Christ, when he commissioned Peter and his other disciples, giving them the use of the keys of heaven, he did not give the entire work of salvation into their hands, in order that he might withdraw and thenceforth look on as an idle spectator! We are assured of his unceasing activity, on earth as well as in heaven. We feel convinced that Christ alone is the good shepherd, and the only proper door into the communion with God! He alone can speak, “Thy sins are forgiven thee,” and has power over the living and the dead! We know too that the kingdom of God does not consist in eating and drinking; not in outward pomp and splendor, in grand temples and imposing ceremonies; “but in righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost.” This is what we desire, and thanks be to God! that Protestants realize the presence of Christ, and are able to rejoice in his righteousness, through the witnessing power of his Holy Spirit ! We hear the tender voice of the “good shepherd,” and he feeds our immortal souls upon the green pastures of gospel truth. Let Rome, therefore, send forth her denunciations against us; we exult and triumph : Papacy where is thy authority! Hierarchy where is thy terror!
H. R. [To be continued.]
ART. VIII.-SHORT NOTICES.
ELEMENTS OF THE ART OF RHETORIC : ADAPTED FOR USE IN COL
LEGES AND ACADEMIES, AND FOR THE PRIVATE STUDY. By Prof. Henry N. Day. New York : A. S. Barnes & Co., 1853. 1 vol.
A book that has met with general favor wherever known, and passed through several large editions already, does not need very much additional commendation to extend still further its circulation. The mere fact, however, that a book on any department of the sciences meets with ready sale, is not of itself unquestionable proof that it is just the one needed to satisfy the demand in that particular direction. But it seems to be evidence that there is a want which it is sought to have supplied. That there did exist such a want in the department presided over by Professor Day is not at all denied. The work, generally considered the best, heretofore, in the department of Rhetoric was that of Archbishop Whately, now in common use. Yet all who have there attempted to study the principles of this most excellent art, will be free to acknowledge that for lack of interest in the book, it was, next to his Logic, more or less repulsive.
This common defect is attempted to be remedied in the plan of this treatise by Prof. Day. He rejects the more modern methods of writing books on Rhetoric, and falls back to the plan of the early authors who treated of this art. The great difference between the later English writers and the ancient masters, such as Quinctilian, Cicero, &c., is found in the general division of Rhetorie called Invention. While this was esteemed of great aecount by those classic authors, it is almost entirely crowded out, or at most but meagerly treated of in later works.
Accordingly, our author makes the two general divisions, Invention and Style--as the art includes “both the supply of thought and of language.” To the first of these divisions, Invention, he assigns the place of primary importance. This is one of the main characteristic differences in which he improves on other works in this department. Besides, it aims at being philosophical, so far as the nature of the art will allow. And above all it is practical; and the author's experience, as a teacher of Rhetoric, of course serves an important purpose in turning this text-book to the highest profitable account.
A fault too common in modern text-books on the art of Rhetoric, is to treat almost exclusively of Style, and neglect the more important part which necessarily conditions the style. In his treatise Prof. Day develops the organic relation of form and contents. Thought and expression hold a necessary relation in discourse. But this is too often overlooked. There is such a thing as reducing this art, when the division embracing style is alone attended to, as in some text-books it is, to a mere smooth jingle of words. As the form of expression, or “the dress of language” does not make up for the meagerness of thought; so “the one may be rich and gorgeous, while the other is miserably lean and dry.” The author truly says, that invention depends on “the richness of the thought itself which constitutes the theme, not on the garb it may chance to wear.” To the beginner in the art of composing, the task is not so repulsive and repugnant to the feelings, because he is ignorant of words and their use, but because he is barren in thought. And no amount of labor in marshalling a fine array of words, will compensate for the absence of thought.
Invention calls for the active exercise of the mental powers, and thus engages
the interest of the learner. From this the author concludes that, “It is next to impossible to awaken a hearty interest in mere style, independent of thought; as the futile attempts to teach the art of composition, as a mere thing of verbal expression, have proved. Composing, when thus taught, must necessarily be regarded as a drudgery and be shunned instinctively with strong aversion. It is otherwise, when thought is the main thing regarded. There is to every mind a pure and elevated pleasure in inventing.
It cannot be questioned that it is to the exclusion of invention from our systems of Rhetoric that the neglect into which the art has fallen, is chiefly to be ascribed." These sentiments, indicating in some measure the spirit and plan of this book, must commend themselves to
those interested in this branch of study. The work will be found to embody a considerable amount of solid sense, along with its share of philosophical treatment.
We cheerfully bespeak for this book an impartial examination ; with the conviction, that as a text-book in Colleges and High Schools, or for private study, it will at least partially, supply a great want.
R. THE TEACHER AND THE PARENT: A TREATISE UPON COMMON SCHOOL
EDUCATION. By Charles Northend, A. M. New York: A s.
Barnes & Co., 1853. 1 vol. pp. 327. The science of teaching is second in importance to but few, in a practical way, of which we have any knowledge. Teaching may very properly now be ranked as one of the learned professions. The golden age of quackery in this, as well as in the other professions of law, and medicine, and theology, is fast, we hope, drawing to a close. It is a somewhat consoling reflection to the Christian and true philanthropist, that in this progressive age of ours, some of the more important interests of our race are not altogether overlooked. Among the rest education is claiming due attention.
In the rapid increase of Schools and Academies of a higher grade, and Colleges (of a lower grade,) a large and constant draft is made upon the active talent of our country, to fill these many new-made places with professors, and principals and teachers. Candidates for these important posts must be prepared by some means or other, if they are not to fail entirely in their new undertakings. Some have felt this want: and provision has, therefore, been made, by which this desideratum may be supplied. We may then welcome anything that helps, even in the most practical sense, to fit the applicants for the responsible places they are to fill.
Though we have been charged with having no particular fondness for any style of Puritanism, yet we must say, that even a good Puritan is not without interest to us. The book now under notice, is a good specimen of this spirit embodied, and bears evidence of the true Yankee genius. We like the book, and consider it one of the best of its kind. It cannot but be of invaluable account to the young teach
Even older and more experienced ones may be no little benefitted by it. Indeed, we cannot but think, that had such a book been in the hands of teachers of “the olden times,” their influence on their pupils, and through them, on our generation, would have been of a vastly different character, from what it really has been found to be. The contents of the book, from the nature of the case, are pre-eminently practical. The range of subjects considered, is various and comprehensive. Judging from the many quotation marks found in the book, one might suppose that the author has not much to claim in the way of originality. But in many instances of such quotations made, we have reason to believe that nothing has been lost by us, from the fact that such space is covered by these choice selections and not rather by matter taken from the author's own store. And, moreover, we remember also, that the best specimens of originality are not always found in those books where quotation marks are the fewest.
The book is commended to the special attention of the teaching profession generally.
DAVIES' BOURDON'S ALGEBRA : REVISED EDITION. New York.
A. S. Barnes & Co., 1853. The Publishers have issued a fine revised edition of this excellent work on Algebra. Of the merits of this treatise on this particular branch of Mathematics it is needless to speak. Although it is only an abridgement based upon the original work of M. Bourdon, which is a full and scientific treatise, yet, as here presented by Dr. Davies, it is as full and complete as the time usually allotted to this branch of study will allow. It is now the text-book in many of our American Colleges and Academies. In our own Colleges, eastern, western and, we believe, southern also, it has been introduced. Many will be glad to meet their old friend in new dress and neat and improved appear
The publishers deserve our thanks, which they will please accept.
1. THE NEW AMERICAN SPEAKER : A collection of Oratorial and
Dramatical pieces, Soliloquies and Dialogues, with an Original Introductory Essay on the Elements of Elocution. Designed for the use of Schools, Academies, and Colleges. By J. C. Zachos,
A. M. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co. 2. A NEW TREATISE ON ASTRONOMY AND THE USE OF THE GLOBE ;
IN TWO PARTS. Designed for the use of High Schools and Acad. emies. By Prof. James McIntire, M. D. New York: A. S.
Barnes & Co. 3 INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCES : PRESENTING A SYSTEMATIC
VIEW OF NATURE. Designed for Schools and Academies. Edit