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Zwingli. The words of Christ, "The Father is greater than I," teach plainly in what sense God is the head of Christ, namely, in reference to Christ's human nature, nisi velit hic inducere prioritatem originis, de qua apud Theologos, which, however, does not apply here. The passage already cited from 1 Tim. 6: 15, may also serve to explain and prove this point, in which we see that Christ is called "the blessed and only Potentate," instead of which word Potentate, we use the word Head.
Schatt. Well then, leaving the rest, I suppose we are to understand Master Ulrich as affirming, that, inasmuch as Potentates or Princes are synonymous with heads, they should be deposed.
Gilg Murer, minister in Rappersweil, now took Schatt's place, and said: It cannot be proven by Scripture, that there is no other power or authority besides Christ. In Rom. 13: 1, it is said, "There is no power but of God." If now all power or authority is of God, spiritual authority must also come from Him, and continue as long as Christianity itself endures.
Haller. That passage refers only to civil power.
Murer. Paul makes no exception-" all power."
Haller. That there is authority in the Church, I never denied according to the Scriptures; but to this no temporal head is required, but it is merely authority to teach and preach the word, &c.
Murer. I admit readily what Haller says, concerning authority in the Church for edification, by virtue of which we are commissioned to preach the word. But where there is authority, there must be officers to execute it. This I will show from the Old Testament. The Jewish synagogues represented the Christian Church, and they had Rulers. If now this type or figure shall be fulfilled, we must also have spiritual superiors in the Christian Church. And inasmuch as Jewish synagogues had not only one High Priest, but two, namely, Moses and Aaron; there must be something corresponding therewith in the New Testament. Accordingly, we have Christ and Peter. Proved by Exodus 4: 16.
Haller. Moses and Aaron were both figures of Christ.
Edelbach. Christ incorporated the Church with Himself, not the Church Christ. From Him, as Head, flow grace, wisdom, salvation, and all perfection and goodness. But the Pope is appointed as Head in the Church in order to govern her by virtue of the power of the keys given to Peter. The assertion of Bucer, that every church or congregation may take action upon what concerns the interests of the whole Church, is incorrect. For we know that the Church in Antioch, even when Paul and Barnabas were present, would not decide upon certain points before them, but sent the matter to Jerusalem, Acts 15; inasmuch as such things pertain to the Rulers of the Church.
Bucer. The declaration concerning the incorporation of the Church with Christ, I accept. As to the mission of Paul and Barnabas to Jerusalem, it is my opinion, that the Church in Antioch had power to decide the matter, without appealing to any other authority. Inasmuch, however, as a controversy arose, and some malicious persons opposed the influence of Peter and James to the opinion of Paul and Barnabas, these preferred having the questions settled by other Apostles. Thus I think, also, that the Church in Bern had better received the sure word of God from their own ministers, (as doubtless many 'did,) without further debate. But as there were some among them who desired to hear the views of others, they resolved to hold this Disputation. Not that they will learn more from us, (even though each of our four thousand members were more learned and pious than Paul,) than their ministers could instruct them concerning divine things. Every Christian, and every single church must believe for themselves, and be assured of what the word of God teaches,-let others think as they please.
With these remarks the discussion of the first article closed.
J. H. A. B.
ART. V.-SKETCHES OF A TRAVELLER FROM GREECE, CONSTANTINOPLE, ASIA MINOR, SYRIA AND PALESTINE.
I. ATTICA AND ATHENS.
The Scenery of Attica, its Productions, Climate and the Manners of its present Inhabitants.
ATTICA may be considered as a peninsula, in the form of a triangle, having for its base the mountain ridge of Cythäron and Parnes, on the north dividing it from Boeotia, and on both sides the Sea; on the east that part of the Ægean by the ancients called Myrtoon Pelagus, from the island Myrtos, and on the west the beautiful Saronic gulf, having its name from Saron, King of Trozen, who perished in its waves. The prolongation of the western side northward, till it reached the base of the mountains, including the island of Salamis, served as the line of demarcation between the Athenian territory and that of the small independent State of Megara. But in earlier times, long before the great Doric invasion of the Peloponnesus, the frontiers of Attica, then called Ionia, being inhabited by the Ionian or Pelasgian race, extended as far as the Corinthian Isthmus, where, according to Strabo, the geographer, a cippus, or land-mark in the form of a pillar, was raised with the inscription, on the north side: This is Ionia and not Peloponnesus, and on the side of the isthmus: Here is Peloponnesus and not Ionia.*
Beautiful is the mountain scenery of Attica. The Cythäron rises steeply from the Corinthian gulf to a height of more than four thousand feet; its flanks are covered with pine and oak forests, which have given it its modern name Elatia,
The pillar was destroyed by the Dorians during their conquest of MegaA later imitation of the inscription we still read on the arch of Hadrian in Athens.
or Mount of Firs. Several defiles, celebrated in the military history of Greece, open a communication between Megara and Eleusis on the south, and Platææ and Thebes on the north. Eastward it joins the high woody Parnes, by the moderns called Ozya, from the fine beach-trees, which cover its northern slope. In the narrow and romantic passes, from which magnificent views extend toward the plains of Boeotia and the strait of Euboea, or the plain of Athens and the islands of the Saronic gulf, we still admire the well preserved and picturesque ruins of the castles of Oinoe and Phyle, and the foundations. of Decelia, so renowned in the times of the Peloponnesian war. Eastward the Parnes sinks steeply down on the strait of Euboa forming a low promontory crowned with the ruins of the castle and temple of Rhamnus.
A brisk ride of three hours, or thirty miles, through valleys covered with fir, pine, arbutus, wild olive and myrtle, in picturesque variety, carries us down to the fertile, and now again highly cultivated plain of Eleusis, with many ruins of aqueducts and ancient structures scattered over its surface. It is divided from the still larger plain of the Cephissus by a low, barren ridge, Aegaleos, extending westward to the strait of Salamis, where it forms the promontory Amphiale, now Skaramanga, from the height of which Xerxes, the proud Persian King on his golden throne, beheld the destruction of his immense fleet in the year 480 B. C.
From Eleusis, around the gulf of Salamis, the Sacred Road, on which the solemn processions from Athens moved on to celebrate the mysteries of Ceres at her great Eleusinian temple, ascends through the defiles of Daphne near the ruins of a temple of Apollo situated in a laurel grove or daphnon, from which the pass itself received its modern name, and then descends upon the broad plain of Athens, bounded at a distance of twelve miles, by Mount Pentelicon on the east, Parnes on the north and Hymettus on the south. On the south-west the plain opens on the Saronic gulf, opposite to the islands of Salamis and Ægina. From the centre of this plain rises the steep prominent rock of the Acropolis, the Acropia of the
mythical times, with its undulating hills, the Areopagus, Museion, Pnyx, the more distant precipitous peak of Lycabettus and the lower ridge of Brilessus, now Turkovouni, losing itself north eastward in the plain. The Acropolis is lying five miles from the coast and presents, with its gold tinged temples, a bold and most beautiful relief against the huge masses of the purple Hymettus, hovering to a height of twenty-five hundred feet above the sea.
On the south of Hymettus the large inland plain, the Mesogaion, extends to the hills of Laurion, where the Athenians opened their rich silver mines. This ridge terminates with the high southern promontory of Sunion, by the mariners called Caro Colonnas, from the glittering marble temple of Minerva Sunias, crowning its summit. The view from beneath the columns is one of the most delightful in the world, extending across the dark blue waters of the Egean and embracing an immense horizon, studded with the high and picturesque Cycladian islands. Thirteen columns of the Doric temple are still standing, with part of the architrave and the antæ of the cell. On one of the pilasters I read a curious inscription, apparently from the first century of our era, stating that Onesimos, here on the promontory, remembered his beloved sister.* We likewise see Lord Byron's name, by himself engraven on one of the columns. The western coast presents a continuation of low, rocky hills, barren and without cultivation; the eastern, on the contrary, is more diversified by craggy promontories, deep, indented bays, forming the fine harbors of Thoricus and Panormus and the glorious battle-field of Marathon, at the eastern base of Mount Pentelicon.
Attica is not a rich country, and nature has not granted it a fertile soil; its geological formation is primitive limestone, and its light, dry mould, therefore, produces only fruits, such as grapes, figs, oranges, lemons and olives, in great abundance and variety; but the stronger and more nourishing cereal grains, Indian corn, wheat, and barley, require diligent culture, and yield a scanty harvest. The tobacco raised on the plain
* Ονήσιμος εμνεσθη της αδελφης χρηστής.