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Harris, Robert, parliamentarian divine, Campdcn.
Harris, Walter, physician, Gloucester, 1651.
Hele, Thomas, writer of French plays, 1740.
Huntingdon, Robert, lip. of Raphoe, orientalist, Deerhurst, 163G.
Kyrle, John, Pope's " Man ot Ross," Whitehouse, Dymmock, 1637.
lewis, John, biographer, topographer, and divine, Bristol, 1675.
Matthew, Tobias, Abp. of York, Bristol, 1546.
Alerret, Christopher, physician and naturalist, Winchcombe, 1614.
Moore, John, Abp. of Canterbury, Gloucester, (died 1804.)
More, Thomas de la, warrior and author, (flourished 1326.)
Neale, Thomas, Hebrew professor, chaplain to Bp. Bonner, Yale, 1540.
Norton, Thomas, alchemist, Bristol, (died 1477.)
Oldham, John, satirical poet, " The English Juvenal," Shipton, 1663.
Overbury, Sir Thomas, poisoned by his wife and Carr, Bourton on the Hill,
Workman, John, nonconformist divine and author, Lasiborough, (died 1636.)
At Alderley, was buried, Chief Justice Sir Matthew Hale, and at Great Harrington, Lord Chancellor Talbot.
At Berkeley was bom Dr. Edward Jenner (now resident at Cheltenham), the first introducer of Vaccine inoculation.—In the Castle is preserved the cabin furniture of the circumnavigator, Sir Francis Drake.—The murder of Edward 11. is most poetically alluded to in "The Bard" of Gray.—In the church-yard is Swift's epitaph "On Dickey Pearce, the Earl of Suffolk's fool."
In Bristol Cathedral are monuments of Mrs. Elizabeth Draper, Sterne's "Eliza;" of Powel the actor, with an epitaph by Colman; of Dame Harriet Hesketh, the friend and correspondent of Cowper; of the Rev. Samuel Love, ■with an epitaph by Mrs. Hannah More; and of Mary wife of the Rev. William Mason, with the beautiful epitaph written by her husband—In All Saints Church lie the remains of the philanthropist Colston, who expended upwards of 70,000/. in acts of benevolence.—In St. Mark's Church was buried the infamous Bedloe, associate of Titus Oates. In the church-yard of St. Peter's lies the unfortunate and imprudent Richard Savage. The present Poet Laureat (Southey), Coleridge, Cottle, and Mrs. Hannah More, are natives of Bristol.
In Cirencester Church are the monuments of Allen first Earl Bathurst, (the friend of Atterbury, Addison, Bolingbroke, Prior, Swift, and Pope); and of his son Lord Chancellor Bathurst.
The Cotswold Games, instituted by Robert Dover, an attorney of Barton on the Heath, were of great celebrity in the reigns of James I. and Charles I. Ben Jonson, Drayton, and other poets of that age, wrote verses on those athletic exercises, which verses were collected in 1636, and published under the "title of " Annalia Dubrensia."
At Eberton, was buried Sir John Fortescue, Chief Justice and Chancellor to Henry VI. author of" De laudibus legum Anglic."
In Gloucester Cathedral, are two beautifully sculptured monuments, one of Alderman Bhckleach and his wife; the other of Mrs. Morley; also a monument to Ralph Bigland, garter king at arms, author of " Collections for Gloucestershire," who died 1784.
At Minchin Hampton, was buried Dr. Bradley, the astronomer.
At Newent, in 1602, was buried Annte Wilson, aged 115; and at Longhope, in 1708, Thomas Bright, aged 124.
Rrdmarton is the birth-place of the antiquaries, Samuel and Daniel Lysons.
Saperlon was the birth-place, residence, and burial-place, of Sir Robert Atkins, historian of his native county,
Tewkesbury was once celebrated for its mustard, which is alluded to in Shaktpeare's Henry IV.
"A disease known, is half removed."
MANY theories have been set Trees are organised bodies; being" forth to account for the Dry- furnished with several sets of vessels, rot; many too have been the re- adapted to perform the several funcmedies prescribed to cure, and the tions of elaborating, and circulating means to prevent it: but I believe their vital fluids, and of respiration: all have hitherto been alike unsuc- they consist obviously of the roots, cessfnl; for although its nature may stem, branches, b'ark, and leaves; have hitherto eluded our search, and these all contain vessels fitted to yet I think its origin is not so ob- the functions each has to perform: scure as to discourage our endea- it is generally agreed by Naturalists, ■vours to discover it. I hope I may that these are of three kinds, besides anticipate, that if the following Es- the respiring vessels of the leaves; say do not completely develope its namely, first, the common vessels; nature, and preventative, that I shall these are long cylindrical tubes, passhave furnished materials, at least, ing up through the root and bole, that may enable others to supply into the branches, and terminating these desiderata,now so greatly need- in the leaves; and their office is to ful for our shipping and our dwel- convey the sap into the elaboratory lings. of the tree (the leaves); where it is
1 consider the Dry-rot to be the changed into the peculiar juices of
result of the Putrefactive Ferinen- the plant; and is thence conveyed
tation, which is modified and much back again to the root by (he se
accelerated by situation and circum- cond set, which are denominated the
stances. proper vessels, to nourish and supply
It will, I conceive, materially as- aliment to the tree, for its growth, aist many persons (shipwrights es- and form; annually, a new zone of pecially) to comprehend the whole wood around the tree; these vessels of the subject, by giving first a short are situated principally in the intergeneral account ot the Organisation nal bark, and cellular tissue above it; •f Trees. and are, like the former, long cylin
drical tubes, running from the leaves back into the root: the third set are the spiral vessels, accompanying the Common vessels; and are supposed to be either absorbents, or air-vessels; but their office has not yet been' clearly shewn. In trees, besides I heir vascular structure, two kinds of fluids are found, the sup, and peculiar juices: the sap is a fluid nearly as liquid as water, is imbibed by the roots from the soil, and is conveyed, as before stated, by the common vesseisthrough the tree: the peculiar juices are the sap concocted, and changed by the leaves: they are found in the proper vessels, and are thus fitted to become the aliment of the tree.
Having now related, of the physiology of trees, what 1 consider necessary in this short disquisition, it will be proper to take a view of the method of Nature, in conducting her vegetable offspring to their final growths and uses. 'All things change' is her motto, and wherever we turu we find ample proofs of its truth : the plant originates from the seed of its parent, is fed by its ashes, passes through the various stages of germination and vegetation, scatters the germs of a new generation, and finally nourishes its owu offspring after the manner itself was supplied.
All vegetable substances, when left to themselves, undergo the putrefactive fermentation; or in other words they are gradually decomposed, and decay. It is necessary to this end, that water should be present, and that the temperature should not be below 45°, nor so high as to evaporate the water hastily. This process therefore depends upon the presence of moisture and heat; but the moisture must not be perpetually renewing; neither may the subject be submersed, nor the heat too great. Any temperature between 45° and 90° assists this process, and the nearer it approaches the maximum, the more rapid will be the process. W^hen these circumstances meet in a tree which has passed its age of maturity, or in timber, the elementary parts of the water, the oxygen and hydrogen gases, attracted by and attracting the principles of the wood, aided by heat, (and this heat is generated by the moist vegetable substance, as is exemplified in the case of damp hay or saw-dust) separate; and the fer
menting and vegetating principle, oxygen gas, begins to act: the consequences of this action are, the formation of water, the springing forth of fungus*, which owes its origin to the action of the oxygen gas upon the sap and juices of the tree (and be it remempered, that timber, as now felled and used, is loaded with them), that stimulus, assisted by the heat generated, exciting an unnatural or abortive vegetation of these, in consequence of the tree not possessing its complete organs to modify: the vegetation; gaseous matter is also generated (carbonic acid gas); the loss of the weight and cohesion of the wood ensues, and this process is carried on until the whole vegetable matter has undergone a complete change; the organic texture is at last destroyed, and there results a heap of unorganised carbonaceous matter.
It now remains to shew that the putrefaction of wood, aud the Dryrot, are one and the same process, under different modifications: this I shall endeavour to do by comparing the cases.
The agents then in the first case are water, and heat; the agents iu the second case are the same.
The circumstances are alike; being oiily more favourable to its rapidity in the second. It is found in the first, that when the water is frequently renewed, or the wood is submersed, that it proceeds very slowly, or not at all; and when the wood is kept dry, it does not occur. In the second case these circumstances affect in the same manner: those parts of a ship that are covered with water, as the floors aud keel, very rarely have Dryrot; and those parts that are kept dry by being exposed to the sun and air, are also free from it; except, indeed, when they happen to be continuations of timbers, the lower ends of which are in situations favouring the change. Again, a high temperature is a favourable circumstance in
* It is, 1 think, worthy of remark, that the putrefactive fermentation of animal matter is productive of animals of inferior organisation to theij parent: thus the varieties of maggots are the production of that process, in man and brute j so the fungi in their varieties, owe their origin to the same cause.
the first case; so it is in the second, as is exemplified in the case of sending newly built ships inlo hot climates; where they are remarked to decay in a rapid manner. Moisture is applicable in the same manner; let us notice those parts of ships most infected, and we shall find that there heat and moisture prevail: from the heads of the first iuttocks up to the gun-deck beams, along the dead-wood, in the stern-frame, in the cant-bodies fore and aft, its ravages are most remarkable; and precisely in those situations do heat and moisture most prevail: there is a difference in situation and of circumstances in the latter case, which will account for its amazing rapidity, namely, the shutting up the timber in a damp state, as it were in a box; and'surrounding it with a damp, heated, and stagnant atmosphere; this must, according to the nature of the thing, cause it to decay faster than that which has the advantage of an occasional renewal of water and of air, and the frequent action of the sun's rays.
The phenomena are the same; being slightly modified by circumstance and situation, and passing with greater rapidity. In the first case they are the occasional appearance of fungi; the extrication of carbonic acid gas; the formation of water; the reduction of the weight, solidity, and loss of the strength ol the wood; and the destruction of its fibrous and organic texture.
To the second case these are also the phenomena: the fungus is always found to precede it; this is so notorious, that it has been supposed by many to be the cause of it. The extrication of carbonic acid gas is also constantly found; this is evident from tbe unwholesome state of the atmosphere of ships below the gun deck, when rotten; especially if they have not been ventilated for some considerable time. The loss of weight, strength, and solidity of the timber, are its principal aud most obvious characteristics. The formation of water is found one of its indications, as frequently, before fungus appears, the surface of the timber is covered with moisture. The destruction of the fibrous aud organic texture is not so generally seen, because the ships are generally opened, and re
paired before the decay has proceeded so far, yet it may be traced; it is not unusual to find the centre of a timber reduced to an impalpable powder.
The result is similar, being a mass of carbonaceous powdery matter.
Having thus compared the two cases, and found the agents, phenonemena, and results the same, the conclusion is irresistible, that they are the same process.
Form of Thanksgiving for the Pre
servation of the Regent.
Mr. Urban, May 1.
AS I am certain of your veneration for the Truth, and your attachment to that which we are told is "the pillar and ground" of it, I do not doubt that, if you think they are vindicated in the following Letter, you will insert it in your Miscellany for the present month. F. H. To the Right Honourable the Earl of Albemarle.
Vicarage, Okehampton, My Lord, April 10.
1 trouble you with this to answer a question which your Lordship is said tohaveasked at the late County meeting at Norwich.
The Times Newspaper of April T* reports that your Lordship said,
"It had been admitted on all sides that it [the attack on the Prince Resent] was no indication of disloyalty in the great body of tbe people, although Ministers had at first attempted Su to construe it; and tbe Church was profaned by an open assertion that it was so.— (Hisses and applause.) Had not the Church, he asked, directly charged the People of England with madness?"
And I am astonished to find, that although the Reverend Mr.Glover made an "energetic address," your Lordship's question did not receive the decided negative which 1 now give to it.
I am not ignorant that something of the kind came from an Honourable Baronet in a certain Assembly. I had two reasons for not noticing it then. The first, your Lordship will readily imagine, arose from the place; the other, which I presume equally influenced all the Members of that Assembly, arose from the man. As the bell clinketh,
So the thinketh,
said the wisdom of our ancestors. No, 1 am well aware that the Baronet is as
certain to resound at the application of the word People, as the aforesaid instrument at that of the clapper. And a fine jingle we had in all the newspapers.
But is your Lordship really to be informed, that a word may have two senses; and that the poor Baronet here laid hold of the wrong one? People may mean either, as he took it, "those who compose the community;" or, as the trainers of the form in question applied it, "the vulgar." And your Lordship would
cesan; and that therefore this must be so far ag-am. Confining the application of the proposed new clause to an-beneficed Clergy, it may be true, but not otherwise; for, by the 21st Hen. .VIII. cap. 13, sect. 8, it is expressly provided, that "spiritual persons not having sufficient glebe or demesne lands in their own lands, in right of their churches, may take in farm other lands*, provided only that the increase thereof be always employed and put to and for the only expence in their households and hosnot have failed to see that they did pitalitles, and not in anywise to buy •o apply it, if you had not jumped, and sell again." And as by the conin the spirit of the Epic Poet, into the current Act of 43 Geo. III. above
cited, it is further provided, that "nothing contained in that Act shall extend to deprive any spiritual person of any privilege, as to the taking, having, or holding any farm or lands to which any such spiritual person was before entitled" under the former Act, it is evident that this new clause in the Consolidation Bill absolutely annihilates a previously existing privilege of the Beneficed Clergy^-an undisputed enjoyment ever since the rei^n of Henry VIII. °
I must, therefore, Mr. Urban, ai a Beneficed Member of the Establishment, feeling I am on the point of having a comparatively frivolous privilege granted as a boon, while I am to be deprived of a.great and valuable 'mmunity, beg for one to remonstrate
middle; but had begun in the jog trot way at the beginning; where they have expressed it by " the base and barbarous assaults of a lawless multitude:" each being previously equivalent to your Lordship's own expression, "the act of au intemperate rabble;" which his R. H. of Sussex has been pleased to style "certain popular irregularities."
If your Lordship could have wanted any thing farther to satisfy you that the Church, as you express it, had not directly charged the people of England with madness, the Reverend gentleman above- mentioned might have supplied it, by informing you, that the words which have given you such offence were actually written by a man who never
could have heard of the People of against such a decided invasion of my England. Francis Huish. professional rights. Vigilius.
Mr. Urban, May 7.
THE long-projected Bill for consolidating and amending the various existing Laws for enforcing the Residence of the Clergy, and better Payment of Stipendiary Curates, having been now brought before Parliament; I wish to suggest an objection, which has, I believe, as yet only partially occurred, though a very serious one, to a new provision introduced into this Act.
The clause in question is intended to restrict spiritual persons of every description from renting or farming lands (other than their own glebes) to a larger extent than twenty acres. It has been stated that by tbe recent Act of 43 Geo. III. cap. 84, no spiritual person can farm any land (not being glebe) without a licence from the DioGbnt. Mag. May, 1817.
Mr. Urban, May B. .
1HAVE observed with pleasure, in several of the public papers* a proposal for a Subscription to assist the Canadian Protestants in building Churches; and I hope it will receive that encouragement from the sup. porters of our venerable Religion, which so pious an undertaking deserves.
It it well observed in the proposal, that "when it is considered that twenly.five years ago the greater part of this Country was.an uninhabited wilderness; that all the Settlers were either labourers or poor farmers; that it was necessary to build houses for themselves, and barns for their
* And that evidently to an unlimited extent, subject to the proviso that follows.