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THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, For MARCH, 1817.
Mr. Urban, March 8.
I AM confident that you will not object to finding a corner (an obscure one there is not in jour Magazine) for the following proverb, which is quoted in Signor Moutucci's excellent Collection of "Iralian Extracts," as being as old (for Wisdom is not young) as the year 1300. 1 believe, the more it is considered, the more its truth and importance will *e felt—
"Insegnare e cosa di Necessity, Dilettare e cosa di Suavita, Ma Muovere e di Vittoria." And it must be soj for an address to the reason will have little effect, unless an impression is made on the feelings. The voice of " the Charmer" will not, I trust, be less attended to, when delivered through the organ of the beautiful Italian language. The Proverb is au Address (implied at least) to the best feelings of our nature, and therefore deserves attention, in whatever language it is conveyed. Should you admit it into your Magazine, it may perhaps excite some Correspondent of yours, who has a taste for the beauties of the Italian language, and a sense of the value of important (I might say sublime) truths, to transfuse (as far as may be done) those beauties into our language, or at least to give those truths the advantage (with a •till greater to those who become acquainted with and feel them) of appearing in an English dress.
Yours, &c. Ruricoi-a.
Mr. Urban, Jan. 20.
I BEG to offer my acknowledgements to G.W. M. for the information conveyed to me in p. 400 of jour last Volume; and to acquaint him that the perusal of the note in p. 156, of " Somerville's History of Great Britain during the Reign of Queen Anne" induced me to apply some time since to Sir George Clerk for the inspection of his Ancestor's
Annotations upon the Memoirs generally and truly ascribed to Mr. Lockhart; and, having explained to him the nature of the papers I was arranging for the prejs, 1 ventured to suggest that the addition of Sir John Clerk's MS notes would be a valuable appendage to them, as tending to illustrate that portion of Mr.. Lockhart's Work which relates to the Union : but Sir George's absence upon the Continent proves an obstacle to my wishes.
For the information of such of your Readers as may be unacquainted with the Memoirs, and with the character of their Author, allow me, Mr. Urban, to add, that Somerville makes frequent use of that performance, gives his reasons for relying upon Mr. L.'s testimony, says that he had excellent access to information, and acknowledges that, with abatement for the Author's political prejudices, his Memoirs may be admitted as an authoritative voucher for many important facts. Somerville had found among the papers at Penycuik a copy of the Memoirs, with notes by Sir John Clerk, bart. who was a Commissioner for treating- of the Union, and in many points differed in his political principles and conduct from his colleague .Mr. Lockhart, so that his annotations may he considered as corrective ol any errors into which Mr. L. might fall whilst writing under impressions of party heat, by which the best and most able men are naturally biassed.
I have great reason to hope, that G. W. M. will not be disappointed in the expectations he has formed of the Lockhart papers, and that he will be more especially gratified by the perusal of the corre<pondence"witii the Chevalier de St. George, and of the detailed adventures of iiis son. The Work, which will appear towards the close of April, in two quarto volumes, admirably connects with the Stuart and Cullocen pai'ers, and is calculated to excite and reward the attention of ail lovers of national history and political anecdote.
Philip Lord Wharton, who died at Wooburn in 1695, was the fourth, and not the first Peer of his family, as described by J. B. p. 328 of jour October Magazine. He was a staunch Whig; and his daughter Philadelphia having married Sir Geo. Lockhart, the Lord President, her lather interfered in the education of his grandson George L. the Author of the Memoirs, &c. and in vain attempted to suppress the Jacobite and Tory principles which the laltcr seems very early to have imbibed. In the Wharton genealogy I hud no mention of Sir Polycarpus Wharton, inquired for by J. B.
Yours, &c. Anth. Acfrere.
Mr. Urban, March 18.
HAVING heard that that antient relick, London Wall, was about to be pulled down, 1 repaired thither a few days since, to survey its ruins, before the hand of Modern Improvement shall have swept them away from the surface of the earth.
, The present remains are in length 75 yards; their height about nine feet; and thickness six. On the North side the wall has been undermined, and shews a layer of Roman bricks level with the pavement of the street, an undoubted proof of its antiquity. The texture of the wall is, like all other Roman remains, exceedingly firm and well cemented.
London Wall is stated to have been built by Theodosius about the year 368, who also repaired several Cities and Castles, and fortified others. He left, says one of the Historians of London (Noorthouck), every thing so secure, that peace was preserved in Britain till the departure of the Romans in the reign of Honorius, A. O. 402.
In the reign of King John part of the old wall, which had been demolished after the Norman Conquest, was repaired, and carried up of the same thickness, and a height of between eight and nine feet, by the Barons.
Upon this was raised a wall wholly of brick, terminating in battlements, two feet.four inches thick, and about eight feet in height. The whole was
adorned by upwards of forty stately towers.
Our forefathers were so careful to preserve this wall clear from incumbrance and prejudice, that they passed a law that no tenement should be built within 16 feet of the walls.
This fragment, emphatically called London Wall, being, though not the, only portion, one of a very few now remaining open to view in the metropolis, it would be creditable to the taste of the city, to direct that any modern improvement might be so contrived as to spare it from destruction.
The other fragments of the walls of London, which occur to ray recollection, are those iu Cripplegale Church-yard, and in Little Bridgestreet, Black Friars.
Yours, &c. G.O.P.T.
Tour through various Parts of the Netherlands and Germany in 1815. (Continuedfrom page 104.J
IN my last letter I gave a brief sketch of the History of thePrioce of Hainanlt down to the beginning of the 15th century, at which period the Counts of Hainault possessed the Sovereignty of Holland, Zealand, and Friesland. This rich inheritance devolved in 1411 upon Jacoba, the only daughter of William Count of Hainault, and Margaret of Burgundy. The records of history seldom present a narrative more interesting than that of the Princess Jacoba of Hainault.
Sunt lacrvmae rerum, et mentem mortaiia tangunt. For a detailed account of her misfortunes, 1 refer your Readers to Shaw's Sketches of the History of the Austrian Netherlands; from which I chiefly extract . the following abridgement, Connected by consanguinity and affinity with some of the most illustrious families in Europe, and distinguished by beauty and mental accomplishments, Jacoba was married, at the age of fifteen, to the Duke of Touraine, the second son of Charles the Sixth, King of France, who, by thedcath of his elder brother, became Dauphin a few months after their marriage. The flattering prospect which was opened to her by this alliance soon vanished; for the Dauphin in the second year of his marriage marriage died suddenly, nut without suspicion of having been poisoned by his unnatural mother Isabella of Bivaria, to whom may be applied ♦.lie character given by Dr. Robertson of Catherine of Medici, that " her boundless and daring ambition never recoiled from any action necessary towards attaining the objects which she had in view." No sooner did Jacoba become a widow, than her lather, with the view of strengthening the inheritance of the House of Hainault, planned a matrimonial alliance for his daughter with the Duke of Brabant, a Prince who had neither personal nor mental accomplishments to win the heart of Jacoba. Her father, however, upon his death-bed requested , that she would give her' hand to the Duke of Brabant; and his request was backed by the solicitation of her mother, who foresaw that the match would ultimately prove advantageous to the House of Burgundy, from which the Duke of iiraliaut was sprung. Jacoba, from deference to her parents, who were inilueuced solely by motives of slate policy, consented at the age of eighteen to be united to a man for whom she had ne affection. This ill-advised step proved the grand source of her subsequent misfortunes: soon after their marriage, an occasion presented itself of exhibiting the conduct of her husband in a light which converted the indifference of Jacoba into feelings of the utmost contempt. Her uncle John of Bavaria, having asserted a groundless claim to Holland and llaiuaull, look up arms in the former province; and jacoba, who was graced will: both Minervas, took the field at the head of her troops of Hainault, and performed prodigies of valour, which were rendered ineffectual by the pusillanimity of her husband, who spread dejection and dismay among the ranks of the Brabanlers. At length, that he might hide his shame, he drew away his forces from Holland, commanding Jacoba to follow him into Brabant; and an ignominious peace was concluded with John of Bavaria. In that age of romance and chivalry, when ladies used to appear in the field of battle, armed cap-a-pee, we may easily conceive the impression which the dastardly conduct of the Duke of Brabant was likely to make upon the mind of bis
high-spiiited and martial consort: she was filled with shame and disgust, and, upon her return to Court, she gave vent to her feelings in strong and indignant terms. This want of policy on her part produced the effect that' might naturally be expected upon a narrow and base mind. Neglecting the Princess, the Duke gave himself up to the lowest gratifications; and, not satisfied with estranging himself from her society, he treated her with every mark of contumely, harshness, and brutality. Personal neglect from such a man, under all the circumstances of the case, could only excite, in the mind of Jacoba, remorse for having bestowed her hand without being able togive her heart; but his brutal treatment, which must have alienated the affection of any woman, was intolerable to Jacoba; her contempt was now changed into resentment; and, giving way to the dictates of anger, she formed the resolution of withdrawing entirely from her husband and from Brabant, and retiring info her native country, Hainault. This resolution she carried into effect in the full lustre of her beauty, and when she had attained only her twentieth year. With a heart susceptible of all the tenderness of love, and feeling the anguish of the bitterest disappointment in her union with the Duke of Brabant, she availed herself of a plea for dissolving it, which had been thought so powerful an objection to the marriage, as to render a Papal dispensation necessary, namely, the nearness of blood; and while she sought, upon that ground, to annul her. marriage with the Duke of Brabant, she happened to cast In r eyes upon a Prince who quickly made a complete conquest of her heart; and this was no other than the handsome, the brave, and accomplished Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, the youngest brother of Henry the Fifth, Kiog of England. — Jacoba, at their first interview, had made a visible impression upon the Duke of Gloucester; and the ardour of their mutual attachment soon arose lo such a height as is seldom met with, except in the fancy of Poets. — But, although the Duke of Gloucester was captivated' by the charms of Jacoba, he was not dead to ambition; and the prospect of attaining the sovereignty pf so
many many rich and powerful provinces stimulated his eagerness to annul the former mnrriage of Jacoba. But, whilst the fond pair were indulging the hope of a speedy accomplishment of their wishes, a powerful obstacle to their union arose in a kinsman of Jacoba—namely, Philip Duke of Burgundy, who, already master of large domains in the Netherlands, was ambitious to augment the power of hij House in that country. He aspired to the fair inheritance of the Princess of Hainault; and, with that view, he resolved to use all the efforts of political intrigue to prevent her union with the Duke of Gloucester. But, notwithstanding his powerful opposition to the match, especially in the English Court, where his iufluence was very considerable, he was unable to binder the lovers from accomplishing their purpose. The former marriage of Jacoba was annulled by the Pope; and the Princess of Hainault came to England, where she was received with the most flattering marks of attention by the King and the Court, and married with pomp to the Duke of Gloucester, who now took the title of Count of Hainault, Holland, and Zealand. After some time, the Duke, accompanied by a body of English troops, passed over with the Princess into Hainault, and every thing seemed to promise to Jacoba an uninterrupted enjoyment of public and domestic felicity; but this sunshine of prosperity was of short duration, and Jacoba's union with the Duke of Gloucester proved to her a source of greater misery than she had yet experienced. Soon after her return to Hainault, she began to-experience the effects of the resentment of the Duke of Burgundy, who inveighed with the utmost severity against the levity of her conduct; and, after loud complaints of the wrong done to the Duke of Brabant, he joined his troops to those of that Prince, to oppose the Duke of Gloucester, who was defeated with great slaughter at Braise in Hainault. The Duke returned to England with the view of collecting a force sufficient to make head against his antagonists.— Jacoba at first had determined to accompany him thither; but, overcome by the importunate supplications of the citizens of Moris the capital of Hainault, who promised to defend her
during the absence of the Duke, sbe consented to fix her abode in that city, until succours should arrive from England; but she soon had cause to repent of the confidence she had placed in their promises ; for the people of Mons having been seduced from their allegiance by the intrigues of the Duke of Burgundy, she was compelled to surrender, and was conveyed as a prisoner to Ghent. The courage and address of Jacoba did not forsake her in this extremity. Disguising herself in man's apparel, and passing through the streets of Ghent by night, she found means to escape into her province of Holland, where she soon found herself at the head of a numerous force, with which she over powered her disaffected subjects in that province. The Duke of Burgundy, who, under the pretext of supporting the rights of the Duke of Brabant, had an eye to the aggrandisement of his own House, alarmed at the success of Jacoba in Holland, advanced with his army into that country, where he defeated an English force which had been sent thither in aid of the Princess. This was a severe blow to Jacoba, which was followed by fresh disasters in other parts of her dominions. These calamities were followed by domestic troubles, which more deeply affected her mind. Pope Martin the Fifth having triumphed over Benedict the Thirteenth, by whom the first marriage of Jacoba had been annulled, was prevailed upon by the Duke of Burgundy to confirm that marriage, and to issue a bull dissolving the second marriage, with the addition of a severe clause, by which the Princess was restrained from marrying the Duke of Gloucester, even if she should become a widow by the death of the Duke of Brabant. But the blow that imprinted the deepest wound on the mind of Jacoba was the inconstancy of the Duke of Gloucester, who, under various pretexts, which thinly veiled his passion for the daughter of Lord Cobhara, whom he afterwards married, declared his purpose of separating himself from the Princess of Hainault, thereby leaving a stain upon his memory which all his great and popular qualities will never be able to efface. Pressed by the armies of the Duke of Burgundy, deserted by her perfidious subjects, forsaken by the ungrateful Duke of Gloucester, Gloucester, the unfortunate Jacoba, after many displays of a noble and valorous spirit, was obliged to yield to the Duke of Burgundy; and the terms which he prescribed were of such a nature, as plainly declared the motives by which his conduct had been actuated. By one article it was stipulated, that all the dominions of Jacoba were to be governed by himself, with the title of her Lieutenant. By another, that, being now a widow by the death of the Duke of Brabant, the should never contract a future marriage without the consent of the States of her Provinces, and of the Duke of Burgundy. Jacoba was not more than twenty-seven years of age when these rigorous terms were imposed upon her; she sub mi I ted to her hard fate with a magnanimity becoming her character as a heroine; and being divested of all authority as a Sovereign, while she retained the name, she retired into the province of Zealand, where she lived upon a slender revenue which she derived from the parsimony of the Duke of Burgundy. There, in those islands that are surrounded by the Schcld, where, dividing itself into many channels, it pours its waters into the ocean, she indulged those melancholy reflections which the unhappy vicissitudes of her life suggested. Sometimes, to relieve her melancholy, she joined in the village sports, and instituted exercises in horsemanship, or in archery. In these exercises, wherein she excelled, and which were so congenial to her active and martial spirit, she was delighted to win the prize, and to be proclaimed by the voice of the villagers Queen of the rural sports. In this manner did Jacoba pass her time during a period of two years, her beauty as yet but little impaired by time or the sorrows of her life—when Love, which had proved to her the source of so many distresses, once more surprised her in her retirement, and prepared for her new misfortunes. Among the Lords of Holland who had been the most adverse to the interests of Jacoba, and who on that account had beeu rewarded by the Duke of Burgundy, was Francis Uorselen, Lord of Martendyke. This nobleman had large estates in Zealand, where he frequently resided. His opposition to the interests of Jacoba had long kept him at a distance from that Princess, till
an. accidental circumstance gained him access to her acquaintance. Margaret of Burgundy, the mother of Jacoba, having sent to her daughter a present of a fine horse from Hainault, and Jacoba, from the extreme meanness of the Duke of Burgundy, being unable to reward the person by whom the horse had been brought, so liberally as she wished; Borselen, who had learned her distress from a domestic, took occasion to present a large sum of money with such grace and delicacy, that Jacoba, touched with his geuerous sympathy, forgot all the prejudices which she had entertained against bim, and intimated her wish to have an opportunity of thanking her benefactor in person.— Kindness from a person whom she had long considered as an enemy h d melted the tender heart of Jacoba, into feelings of admiration and gratitude, and pergonal acquaintance prepossessed her still more in his. favour (for Borselen to a graceful persou joined the most engaging manners). At length her inclination for this nobleman, growing from the solitude in which she lived, and perhaps also from the hard restraiuU imposed upon her, became so strong thai she could no longer conceal the impression he had made upon her, and love took possession of her heart. The charms of Jacoba bad inspired Borselen with a reciprocal passion; and she, forgetting the disparity of rank and the engagements by which she was fettered, united herself with bim by a private marriage.
The Duke of Burgundy, who had employed spies to watch the conduct of Jacoba, was no sooner apprised of this marriage, than he hastened to draw from it that advantage which it afforded to his ambition. YY'hile he was inwardly pleased, he affected violent indignation. He ordered Borselen to be apprehended, and conveyed from Zealand to the Castle of Rupclmonde in 1'landers, situated at the confluence of the Rupcl and tho Scheld. With a view to alarm the 'Princess, he caused a report to be spread that the life of Borselen was to atone for the presumption of which he had been guilty, 'the Princess of Hainault, anxious to save her husband from the danger in which his attachment to her had involved him, collected a small force in Zealand ; and, having armed some vessels,