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those few that remained were seen still engaged in the dreadful business of mutual extermination.
I received this curious detail from the British Admiral himself, some years afterwards, in the Mediterranean. The scene, he said, surpassed all powers of description. Perhaps the pencil of Rubens alone was competent to do justice to the energy and spirit which characterized the action of creatures when thus excited to the highest degree of rage, and fury.* This remarkable transaction affords us a picture of the horse in a savage state, strikingly contrasted with the mildness and gentleness of his disposition when under the discipline of man; and shows how much we owe to a forbearance of that strength and spirit, which would enable the horse, if conscious of his own powers, to emancipate himself at once from the dominion to which he is now so readily trained.
My daughter Mary was taken with the small-pox, and there soon was found no hope of her recovery. A very great affliction to me : but God's holy will be done.
She received the blessed Sacrament; after which, disposing herself to suffer what God should determine to inflict, she bore the remainder of her sickness with extraordinary patience and piety, and more than ordinary resignation and blessed frame of mind. She died the 14th July, to our unspeakable sorrow and affliction, and not to ours only, but that of all who knew her, who were many of the best quality, greatest and most virtuous persons. The justness of her stature, person, comeliness of countenance, gracefulness of motion, unaffected, though more than ordinary beautiful, were the least of her ornaments compared with those of her mind. Of early piety, singularly religious, spending a part of every day in private devotion, reading and other virtuous exercises ; she had collected and written out many of the most useful and judicious periods of the books she read in a kind of com.no mon-place, as out of Dr. Hammond on the New Testament, and most of the best practical treatises. She had read and digested a considerable deal of history and of places. The French language was as familiar to her as English ; she understood Italian, and was able to render a laudable account of what she read and observed, to which assisted a most faithful memory and discernment; and she did make, very prudent and discreet reflections upon what she had observed of the conversations among which she had at any time been, which being continually of persons of the best quality, she thereby improved. She <3
* These regiments were all mounted on the fine horses of Andalusia, black with long tails, very similar to those of our English Life Guards, and must have made 2013! noble appearance when thus engaged.
had an excellent voice, to which she played a thorough-bass on the harpsichord, in both which she arrived to that perfection, that of the scholars of those two famous masters, Signors Pietro and Bartholomeo, she was esteemed the best ; for the sweetness of her voice and management of it added such an agreeableness to her countenance, without any constraint or concern, that when she sung, it was as charming to the eye as to the ear; this I rather note, because it was a universal remark, and for which so many noble and judicious persons in music desired to hear her, the last being at Lord Arundels of Wardour. What shall I say, or rather not say, of the cheerfulness and agreeableness of her humour? Condescending to the meanest servant in the family, or others, she still kept up respect, without the least pride. She would often read to them, examine, instruct and pray with them if they were sick, so as she was exceedingly beloved of every body. Piety was so prevalent an ingredient in her constitution (as I may say) that even amongst equals and superiors she no sooner became intimately acquainted, but she would endeavour to improve them, by insinuating something of religious, and that tended to bring them to a love of devotion; she had one or two confidents with whom she used to pass whole days in fasting, reading, and prayers, especially before the monthly communion and other solemn occasions. She abhorred flattery, and though she had abundance of wit, the raillery was so innocent and ingenious that it was most agreeable; she sometimes would see a play, but since the stage grew licentious, expressed herself weary of them, and the time spent at the theatre was an unaccountable vanity. She never played at cards without extreme importunity and for the company, but this was so very seldom that I cannot number it among any thing she could name a fault. No one could read prose or verse better or with more judgment; and as she read, so she writ, not only most correct orthography, with that maturity of judgment and exactness of the periods, choice of expressions, and familiarity of style, that some letters of hers have astonished me and others to whom she has occasionally written. She had a talent of rehearsing any comical part or poem, as to them she might be decently free with was more pleasing than heard on the theatre ; she danced with the greatest grace I had ever seen, and so would her master say, who was Mons. Isaac; but she seldom shewed that perfection, save in the gracefulness of her carriage, which was with an air of sprightly modesty not easily to be described. Nothing affected, but natural and easy as well in her deportment as in her discourse, which was always material, not trifling, and to which the extraordinary sweetness of her tone, even in familiar speaking, was very charming. Nothing was so pretty as her descending to play with little children, whom she would caress and humour with great delight. But she most affected to be with grave and sober men, of whom she might learn something, and improve herself. I have been assisted by her in reading and praying by me; comprehensive of uncommon notions, curious of knowing every thing to some excess, had I not sometimes repressed it. Nothing was so delightful to her as to go into my study, where she would willingly have spent whole days, for' as I said she had read abundance of history, and all the best poets, even Terence, Plautus, Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid ; all the best romances and modern poems; she could compose happily, and put in pretty symbols, as in the Mundus Muliebris,* wherein is an enumeration of the immense variety of the modes and ornaments belonging to the sex; but all these are vain trifles to the virtues which adorned her soul; she was sincerely religious, most dutiful to her parents, whom she loved with an affection tempered with great esteem, so as we were easy and free, and never were so well pleased as when she was with us, nor needed we other conversation; she was kind to her sisters, and was still improving them by her constant course of piety. Oh! dear, sweet, and desirable child, how shall I part with all this goodness and virtue without the bitterness of sorrow and reluctancy of a tender parent! Thy affection, duty, and love to me, was that of a friend as well as a child. Nor less dear to thy mother, whose example and tender care of thee was unparalleled, nor was thy return to her less conspicuous. Oh! how she mourns thy loss! how desolate hast thou left us ! To the grave shall we both carry thy memory!
God alone (in whose bosom thou art at rest and happy!) give us to resign thee and all our contentments (for thou indeed wert all in this world) to his blessed pleasure ! Let him be glorified by our submission, and give us grace to bless him for the graces he implanted in thee, thy virtuous life, pious and holy death, which is indeed the only comfort of our souls, hastening through the infinite love and mercy of the Lord Jesus to be shortly with thee, dear child, and with thee and those blessed saints like thee, glorify the Redeemer of the world to all eternity! Amen.
ON THE BOILING OF POTATOES SO AS TO BE EAT AS BREAD.
(From a Report of the Board of Agriculture.)
There is nothing that would tend more to promote the consumption of potatoes than to have the proper mode of preparing them as food generally known.-In London this is little attended to; whereas in Lancashire and Ireland the boiling of potatoes is brought to very great perfection indeed. When prepared in the following manner, if the quality of the root is good, they may be eat as bread, a practice not unusual in Ireland. The potatoes should be, as much as possible, of the same size, and the large and small ones boiled separately. They must be washed clean, and, without paring or scraping, put in a pot with cold water, not sufficient to cover them, as they will produce themselves, before they boil, a considerable quantity of fluid. They do not admit of being put into a vessel of boiling water like greens. If
* A poem of Mr. Evelyn's.
the potatoes are tolerably large, it will be necessary, as soon as they begin to boil, to throw in some cold water, and occasionally to repeat it, till the potatoes are boiled to the heart, (which will take from half an hour to an hour and a quarter, according to their size,) they will otherwise crack, and burst to pieces on the outside, whilst the inside will be nearly in a crude state, and consequently very unpalatable and unwholesome. During the boiling, throwing in a little salt occasionally is found a great improvement, and it is certain that the slower they are cooked the better. When boiled, pour off the water, and evaporate the moisture, by replacing the vessel in which the potatoes were boiled once more over the fire. This makes them remarkably dry and mealy. They should be brought to the table with the skins on, and eat with a little salt, as bread. Nothing but experience can satisfy any one how superior the potato is, thus prepared, if the sort is good and mealy. Some prefer roasting potatoes; but the mode above detailed, extracted partly from the interesting paper of Samuel Hayes, Esq., of Avondale, in Ireland, (Report on the Culture of Potatoes, p. 103.) and partly from the Lancashire Reprinted Report (p. 63.), and other communications to the Board, is at least equal, if not superior. Some have tried boiling potatoes in steam, thinking by that process that they must imbibe less water. But immersion in water causes the discharge of a certain substance, which the steam alone is incapable of doing, and by retaining which, the favour of the root is injured, and they afterwards become dry by being put over the fire a second time without water. With a little butter, or milk, or fish, they make an excellent mess.
Human life has been said to resemble the situation of spectators in a theatre ; where, whilst each person is engaged by the scene which passes before him, no one thinks about the place in which he is seated. It is only when the business is interrupted, or when the spectator's attention to it grows idle and remiss, that he begins to consider at all who is before him, or who is behind him; whether others are better accommodated than himself, or whether many be not worse. It is thus with the various ranks and stations of society. So long as a man is intent upon the duties and concerns of his own condition, he never thinks of comparing it with any other; he is never troubled with the reflection upon the different classes and orders of mankind, the advantages or disadvantages of each, the necessity or non-necessity of civil distinction ; much less does he feel within himself a disposition to covet' or envy any of them. He is too much taken up with the occupation of his calling, its pursuits, cares, and business, to bestow unprofitable meditations upon the circumstances in which he sees others placed. And by this means a man of a sound and active mind, has in his very constitution a remedy against the disturbance of envy and discontent. These passions gain no admittance into his breast, because there is no leisure there, or vacancy for the trains of thought which generate them. He enjoys, therefore, ease in this respect, and ease resulting from the best cause, the power of keeping his imagination at home ; of confining it to what belongs to himself, instead of sending it forth to wander amongst speculations which have neither limits nor use ; amidst views of unattainable grandeur, fancied happiness, of extolled, because unexperienced, privileges and delights.
The wisest advice that can be given is, 'never to allow our attention to dwell upon comparisons between our own conditions and that of others : but to keep it fixed upon the duties and concerns of the condition itself. But since every man has not this power; since the minds of some men will be busy in contemplating the advantages which they see others possess, and since persons in laborious stations of life are wont to view the higher ranks of society with sentiments which not only tend to make themselves unhappy, but which are very different from the truth ; it may be an useful office to point out to them, some of those considerations, which, if they will turn their thoughts to the subject, they should endeavour to take fairly into the account.
And first, we are most of us apt to murmur when we see exorbitant fortunes placed in the hands of single persons ; larger, we are sure, than they can want, or, as we think, they can use.
This is so common a reflection, that I will not say it is not natural. But whenever the complaint comes into our minds, we ought to recollect that the thing happens in consequence of those very rules and laws which secure to ourselves our property, be it ever so small. The laws which accidentally cast enormous estates into one great man's possession, are, after all, the self-same laws which guard and protect the poor man. Fixed rules of property are established, for one as well as another, without knowing, beforehand, whom they may affect. If these rules sometimes throw an excessive or disproportionate share to one man's lot, who can help it? It is much better that it should be so, than that the rules themselves should be broken up : and you can only have one side of the alternative or the other. To abolish riches would not be to abolish poverty : but, on the contrary, to leave it without protection or
It is not for the poor man to repine at the effects of laws and rules by which he himself is benefited every hour of his existence; which secure to him his earnings,--his habitation,-his bread, --his life ;-without which he, no more than the rich man, could eat his meal in quietness, or go to bed in safety. Of the two, it is rather more the concern of the poor to stand up for the laws than the rich; for it is the law which defends the weak against the strong, the humble against the powerful, the little against the great ; and weak and strong, humble and powerful, little and great there would be, even were there no laws whatever. Beside; what, after all, is the mischief? The owner of a great estate does not eat more than the owner of a
His fields do not produce worse crops, nor does the pro