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land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who believed
6 not. And the angels who kept not their first state *, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in eternal chains, under darkness, to the judgement of the great
7 day. Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them which in like manner with them gave themselves over to uncleanness, and went after abominable desires f, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of
8 everlasting fire \. In like manner also these dreamers defile the flesh, set at nought dominion, and blaspheme
9 dignities. Yet Michael the archangel, when, contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring || against him a blaspheming accusation*!!,
10 but said, "The Lord rebuke thee." But these blaspheme what they understand not: but what they know naturally, as brute creatures, in these things they cor
11 rupt themselves. Alas for them 1 because they have gone in the way of Cain, and rushed after the error of Balaam for reward, and destroyed themselves by gainsaying like
12 Korah. These are blemishes in your love-feasts, when they banquet with you, feeding themselves without restraint tt: clouds ff without water, carried aside by winds; trees whose fruit withereth, barren, twice dead, plucked
* Or, u the messengers who watched not duly over their own principality, but deserted their proper habitation, he kept with perpetual chains under darkness (punished them with judicial blindness of mind) unto the judgement of a great day, i.e. when they were destroyed by a plague." Alluding to the falschood and punishment of the spies. Mumben xiv. See Simpson's Essays, p. 210. Perhaps,however, the writer may refer to some faneiful aeeount of a fall of angels contained in the apoeryphal book which lay before him, without meaning to vouch for that fact any more than for the incident mentioned ver.O. He might introduee it merely to illustrate his argument. At any rate, a fact so important is not to be admitted upon such preearious evidenee.
t Or, followed unnatural passions, Gr. other flesh, N. m.
l " Everlasting in its effects; the cities having been finally destroyed." Neweome.
| Or, suffered not himself to bring. Did not presume to bring. Wakefield.
*( "This was probably taken from the apoeryphal book before mentioned. We may be instructed by the moral, without admitting the fact. Some suppose a referenee tw Zeeh. iii. 1—3." Newcome.
'tt N. M. fear: N. Jt they art at cIouds-*7* trccs-ti* waves-os stars. N
13 up by the roots; raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom the black
14 ness of darkness is reserved for ever. Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied to these also, saying*, "Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his
15 saintst, to execute judgement upon all, and to convict all the ungodly [among them] of all their ungodly deeds which they have committed, and of all the hard sfiecehes
16 which ungodly sinners have spoken against him." These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own evil desires: and their mouth speaketh very swelling words, and they respect the persons of men for the sake of gain.
17 But, beloved, remember ye the words \ which have been spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ;
18 how they told you that there should be scoffers in the 19 last time, walking after their own ungodly desires. These are they who separate, [themselves,] animal, not having the spirit.
20 But ye, beloved, building up yourselves in your most
21 holy faith, praying through the holy spirit, keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our
22 Lord Jesus Christ to everlasting life. And on some 23 have pity, making || a difference: and save others [with fear,] snatching them out of the fire; hating even the vestf defiled by the flesh. 24 Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling**, and to present you spotless before his glory with exceed- 25 ing joy; to the only God, our Saviourtt, through Jesus
* This is another quotation from some ancient apoeryphal hook; for the authentici-
free from falling, N.
Christ our Lord*, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, as before all timet, so now, and throughout all ages. Amen.
* The words "through Jems Christ our Lord" are omitted in the reeeived text and by New come. They ire introdueed in Griethach, 9d edit., upon the authority of the Alexandrian, Vatican, and Ephrem MSS,and many ancient eesswmt.
t The words "before all time" are wanting in R. T. and \.. but introdueed byGriesbach, 2d edit., upon the tame authorities as in the preeeding note- q' *1. rt A» it was in the begmtnng, is now, and ever shall be."*
The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him, that he might shew to his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his
2 angel to his servant John: who hath thus testified of the word of God, and of the testimony given to Jesus Christ,
3 even whatever things he saw. Happy is he that readeth, and those that hear, the words of this prophecy, and keep the things written in it: for the time is near.
4 John to the seven churches which are in Asia: favour be to you, and peace, from him that is, and that was, and that is to come; and from the seven spirits which
* The Apocalypse or Revelation of St. John, it one of those books, the genuineness and authority of which, as Euscbius informs us, was, by somc, ealled in question. It has, however, been almost universally received in modern nmes. As a book of propheey, the evidence of its divine authority must chicfly rest upon the perceived aceomplishment of the predictions which it contains: so that it may be regarded as in a considerable degree independent of external evidenee. In this, however, in the estimation of many learned men, it is far from being deficicnt. Sir Isaac Newton says, (Observ. on Apoc. p. 249,) * I do not find any other book of the New Testament so strongly attested, or commented upon so early as this." Dr. Priestley (Notes, vol. iv. p. 573,) says, he thinks it impossible for any intelligent and candid person to peruse it without being convinced that. " considering the age in which it appeared, none but a person divinely inspired could have written it." Sce also Mr. Towers's observations and extraets respeeting the authenticity of the Apocalypse, in his learned Illustrations of Propheey, vol. i. ch. iii. Mr. Evanson has even endeavoured to prove that the apostle Paul alludes and thus bears testimony to the authenticity of this book in some of his epistles. Sce Evanson's Refleetions upon the State of Religion, p. 34—42. Some learned men, however, who have even admitted the divine authority of the Apocalypse, have expressed a doubt whether this book was written by John the apostle and evangelist. The arguments of Dionysius, a diseiple of Origen, and an eminently learned and pious bishop of Alexandria, in the third century, arc contained in a large extract from a
5 [are] before his throne; and from Jesus Christ who ia the faithful witness, the first-born from the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth.
To him that loveth us, and hath washed us from our
6 sins by his own blood, and hath made us a kingdom of priests* to his God and Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
7 Behold, he will come with clouds; and every eye will see him, and those also who pierced him: and all the tribes of the earth will lament because of him. Even
8 so, Amen. "I am Alpha and Omega," saith the Lord Godt, that is, and was, and that is to come, the Almighty.
9 I John, your brotherf and companion in the affliction, and kingdom, and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the island which is called Patmos, for the word of God,
treatise of Dionysius in the seventh book of Eusetnus', Eeelesiastieal History. Tbey are thus abridged by Dr Lankier: A Dionysius's objeetions are five in number. 1. That the evangelist John has not named himself, either in his gospel or in bis catholic epistle, but the writer of the Revelation names himself more than onee. 2. That though the writer of the Revelation calls himself John, he has not shewn us that he is the apottle of that name. 3. That the Revelation doth not mention the catholic epistle, nor that epistle the Revelation. 4. That there is a great agreement in sentiment, expression, and manner, between St. John's gospel and epistle, but the Revelation is quite different in all these respects, without any resemblanee or similitude. 5. That the Greek of the gospel and epistle is pure and correct, but that of the Revelation has barbarisms and soleeisms. Dionysius's own opinion is, that the Revelation was written by some holy and inspired person named John, but who that John was he does not know: he might be John the Elder, said to have resided for some time at Ephesus, in Asia." Dr. Lardnex, having examined the arguments of Dkmysius at large, and stated the opinions of other learned men, concludes with his usual candour, " I must acknowledge that the Revelation, when compared with the apostle's unqucstioned writings, has an ludikeness not easy to be aeeounted for.'* Lardner's Works, vol. iit p. 130. The principal authors who have attempted the interpretation of this difficult propheey arc Joseph Mede, Sir Isaac Newton, Waple, Daubuz, Vitrings, Low man. Bp. Newton. See also Mr. Towers's Illust. of Propheey, Abp. Newcome's and Dr. Priestley's Notes upon the Seriptures, and Mr. Evanson's Refleetions upon the State of Religion in Chiistendom in the 19th Century.
» kings and priests, R. T. and N. See Grieshach and Wetssein.
t R. T. reads, » I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord."
t who am also your brother, R. T.