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11 But when Peter came to Antioch, I withstood him to
12 his face, because he was to be blamed*. For before some came from James, he ate with the gentiles: but, when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fear
13 ing those of the circumcision. And the other Jews also dissembled with him ; so that Barnabas likewise was car
14 ried away with them by their dissimulation. But when I saw that they walked not uprightly, according to the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter in the presence otthem all, "If thou, being a Jew, live according to the manner of the gentiles, and not according to that of the Jews, howt compellest thou the gentiles to live like the Jews?
15 We, who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the gen
16 tilesf, since we know that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ; even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law: for
17 by the works of the law no man can be justified. But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also
* Or, condemned, Chandler.
t why, N. Tt. The truc reading is jrwj I—How is it that thou compeUest, etc. Griethach.
X The Jews by birth, were in a state of privilege and under the Mosaic covenant, and therefore they were holy, and possessed many valuable means of virtuc, whether they improved them or not. The gentiles by birth, were in an uncovenanted state, and as such were unholy, and eeremonially sinners, whatever their moral character might be. The Jews, having violated the terms of their covenant, beeame sinners , like the gentiles, and, by faith in Christ, again became holy. The gentiles, by faith in Christ, also beeame holy, were admitted into the same cast, and became entitled to the same privileges; and this without submitting to the yoke of the eeremonial law. This was the liberal doctrine which Paul taught, but which the judaiwng bigots evess' where opposed; insisting upon the indispensable neeessity, or, at least, the great advantage, of submission to the eeremonial bw. See Acts xv. It is of great importanee to the clear understanding of the apostle's writings, and particularly of this epistle, to be apprised and to reeolleet, that sin, in the apostle's argument, often expresses merely an unprivileged or uncovenanted state: holiness, is separation from the rest of the world by being in a state of privilege or covenant with God: to be justified, is to pass out of a state of sin into a state of holiness; or, in other words, from an unprivileged, into a privileged and covenant state. This is produeed by faith, that is, the public profession of christianity; without the works of the law, that is, without submission to the Mosaic ritual. All this has relation to an external rather than to a moral state. See Locke- and Taylor on the Rnmana, and Taylor's Key. y
be found sinners, is Christ the minister of sin? By no
18 means. For if I build again the things which I have
19 destroyed, I make myself a transgressor. For I, through the law, have died to the law, that I might live to God.
20 I have been crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God,
21 who loved me, and delivered up himself for me. I do not make void the favour of God: for if justification* come by the law, then Christ died in vain."
Ch. hi. O unwise Galatians, who hath bewitched you,t before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been heretofore
2 clearly set forth [among you] as crucified \? This only I desire to learn from you: Received ye the spirit by the
3 works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? Are ye so unwise? having begun with the spirit, are ye now made
4 perfect by the flesh? Have ye suffered so many things in
5 vain ? if indeed it must be even in vain. He therefore who ministered to you the spirit, and wrought miracles among you, did he thus by the works of the law, or by the
6 hearing of faith? even as "Abraham believed God, and
7 it was counted to him for righteousness." Know therefore, that those who are of faith are the sons of Abraham.
S And the scripture, having foreseen that God would justify the gentiles by faith, proclaimed before glad tidings to Abraham, saying, "Through thee all nations shall be
9 blessed." So those that are of faith are blessed with faith
10 ful Abraham; (for as many as are of the works of the law, are under a curse: for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who continueth not in all the things which are writ
11 ten in the book of the law, to do them." But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, is evident:
12 for "the just shall live by faith." Now the law is not of
* acquittal. Wakefield. t that ye ihould not obey the truth, R. T.
t Jcra Christ crueified was set forth among you. Cluwdlcr.
faith: but " he* who doeth them, shall live by them."
13 Christ hath redecmedt us from the curse of the law, having been made a cursef for us: for it is written, "Cursed is
14 every one that hangeth on a tree :") that the blessing of Abraham might come on the gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the spirit by faith.
15 Brethren, (I speak according to the manner of men,) though it be but a man's covenant, yet, if it be confirmed,
16 no man disannulleth it or addeth to it. Now to Abraham and to his seed the promises were made. (It is not said, "And to seeds," as of many ; but, as of one ; "And
17 to thy seed," which one fierson || is Christ.) And this I say, that the covenant which God confirmed before [concerning Christ,] the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, doth not disannul, so as to make the
18 promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God freely gave it to
19 Abraham by promise. To what fiurfiose then was the law? It was added because of transgressions U, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ministered by messengcrstt through the hand of a media
20 tor. ff Now a mediator is not a mediator of one; but God
• The man, R. T.
t ''By abolishing the law, and dying to establish a better covenant." New come. | "That is, as it were aceursed: treated by men as U' be had committed a chme w orthy of death, and of the divine wrath." Dcut. xxi. 23. Newcomts | which is Christ. N. See Chandler.
H Or, What then? The law was added because of transgression,. Chandler.
ft Angels, N. with the public version. The meaning probably is, that the law was promulgated to, or rather mj"ined upon (lce Seblcusner and Phavorinus apud SeldcusO the Israclites by the proper offirers, viz. priests and Levites, under the direction of Moses; who was the medium of divine communication, and who received it immediately from God.
It Abp. Neweome, with Michaclis and others, suspects this verse to be a gloss. Bat it scems necessary to the apostle's argument. Moses was a mediator, not betwecn God and the promised seed, but between God and the Israclites. The covenant therefore which he introduced, could not annul that which had been made before with the pro. mised sced. For though God, one of the partics, was present and joined ;n the Mosaic covenant, the other party, the promised seed, had no concern in r. Sce Locke.
21 is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? By no means: for if a law had been given, which could have bestowed life, then truly justification would have
22 been by the law. But the scripture hath included all together under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus
23 Christ might be given to those who believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, included together to the faith which was afterward to be revealed.
24 So that the law was our conductor* to Christ, that we
25 might be justified by faith. But now faith is come, we
26 are no longer under a conductor*. For ye are all the 27 sons of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ.
28 There is neither Jew nor gentile, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye all are
29 one in Christ Jesus. But if )e be Christ's, then ye are the seed of Abraham, [and] heirs according to the promise.
Ch. Iv. Now I say that the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be master of
2 all; but is under tutors and guardians, until the time ap
3 pointed by his father. So we likewise, when we were children, were in servitude under the elements of the
4 worldt : but when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his sonf, born of a woman||, born under the
5 law, to redeem those that were under the lawl!, that we might receive the adoption of sons.
• So Wakeficld. guide, N.
t '' Under an introductory and ritual law, which oceupicd us about the things of this world." Observe Col. ii. 8, 20 ; Heb. ix. 1. Neweome.
% "God senlforth his son," gave him adi>ine commission. John j. 6;x\ii. 18. "St. Paul then says here, that at his appointed time the Almighty gave a commission to Jesus, the son of Mary, of-a Jewish family, subject to the law of Moses," Lindsey's Second Address, p. 282.
| The phrase, 'born of a woman,' bears no allusion to the supposed miraculous conception of Christ. It Is a common Jewish phrase to express a proper human being. Sce Job. KtT. 1; Xt. 14 ; xxv. 4. Matt. xi. 11. Luke vis. 38.
1 To deliver us from the bondage of the Mosaic institute, and to introduce a new and more liberal dispensation. Sec ch. iii. 13,14. *
6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of his Son into our hearts*, crying out\, "Abba," that is,
7 Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son ; and if a son, then an heir [of God] through Christ.
8 At that time, however, when ye knew not God, ye were 9 slavesf to those who by nature are not gods: but now, after ye have known God, or rather have been known by Him, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly|| ele
10 ments to which ye desire to be again in servitude? Ye
11 observe days, and months, and seasons, and years. I fear concerning you, lest I have bestowed on you labour in vain.
12 Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I also was
13 as ye trcf. Ye have not wronged me in any thing : but ye know that in weakness of the flesh I preached the gos
14 pel to you at first: and [my] trial which was in my flesh ye did not set at nought nor scorn: but ye received me
15 as a messenger** of God, or even as Christ Jesus. What therefore [were] your congratulations of yourselves? for I bear you witness that, if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them
16 to me. Am I therefore become your enemy, when I tell
17 you the truth? Some zealously affect you, but not well: yea, they desire to exclude youtt, that ye may zealously
18 affect them. But it is good to be always zealously affected to a good manfT; and not only when I am pre
19 sent with you, my children, of whom I travail in birth|||| JO again, until Christ be formed in you. But I could wish to be present with you now, and to change my voice: for I doubt concerning you.
21 Tell me, ye who desire to be under the law, do ye not
22 hear the law? For it is written, that Abraham had two sons; one by a bond-woman, and another by a free-wo
23 man. But he that was of the bond-woman, was born
« your hearts, R. T. t Or, which spirit erieth nut. X ye aerred, N.
3 So the public version, and Wakefield, poor, N. 1 am as ye ore. N.
•* So Wakefield, an angel, Newcome, with the public venion.
tt to exclude us, R. T. lt in a good thing, N. See Loeke.
II whom I am bearing again, Wakefield.