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with a well-defined object, and its from it, a cluster of lofty eminences reflected image. Other precautions intervenes. Three of these were were also used to ensure accuracy. measured, and found to be from 19,099 The heights, too, were computed ac- to 21,150 feet ; and two others nearcording to the formula given by Mr est to the pass, the highest of which Colebrooke, in the 12th volume of was 22,441 feet. The pass itself was the Asiatic Researches ; making an found to be 17,598 feet high. Beallowance of 1-18th of the intercept. ing on the frontiers of the British ed arc for terrestrial refraction. This dominions, Captain Webb received was the rate fixed on by Captain a visit from the Chinese governor of Webb, from the result of computa- the adjacent province; and having tions made by him, with different carried a series of levels geometrirates, from l-10th to 1.20th, for the cally to the spot fixed on for the re. purpose of determining and adopt- ception of the mandarin, found his ing that as the mean, under which place of encampment 14,434 feet the extreme difference of results high. To the south of the encamp. should be found to be the least. ment is a peak 19,857 feet, succeed
The mountains measured by him ed by others of less elevation (one, were, first, a cluster of lofty peaks for example, 18,398 feet,) which situated between lat. 300 407 and lead to a fifth group of lofty peaks 30° 50', and 10 on either side of measured in the course of the sur. long. 70. Six peaks in that group vey, the most elevated of which is were found to be from 22,058 to 22,727 feet, the others declining from 23,164 feet high ; and three con- 22,238 to 20,923 feet. The loftiest tiguous ones from 19,106 to 21,611 point of this group was distinctly vifeet.
sible from Philibhit, as is the highest The next group is still of loftier of the third, and the most southerly elevation, and situated in and near of the second group. Their elevalat. 30° 20 and between long: 79° 37' tions, as determined by the mean reand 79° 55'. Four peaks of this group sult of several admeasurements, were rise from 22,313 to 25,669 feet. Two respectively 22, 277, 22,635, and contiguous ones on the east are 22,313 feet. There can be no doubt 20,686 and 15,733 ; and a multitude that one of these is the mountain obof positions towards the west have served by Colonel R. H. Colebrooke, been ascertained to be from 10,653 from two stations, Philibhit and to 12,156 feet. Captain Webb here Jethpur ; the mean of whose obsertraced the Gauri to the spot where it vations, calculated on an allowance emerges from the snow, the eleva. of 1-11th of the intercepted arc for tion of which he determined at 11,543 terrestrial refraction, gave 22,768 feet.
feet. In a third group the loftiest point The loftiest summit measured by is 22,635 feet high, encompassed by Captain Webb (25,669 feet) was, in four other towering peaks from 17,994 like manner, observed from several to 21,439 feet. On the north-west places ; viz. from the remote station of this group is Lebong ghaut, which of Cassipur, nearly 66 geographical was crossed in June 1816, and the miles ; from Calinath, 47 geographicrest of which, in lat. 30° 20' and cal miles ; and from Gangoli, 43 geolong. 80° 27', was found, by geome- graphical miles. trical measurement, to be 18,871 feet. It appears then, that the results of
Between this and another pass in. Captain Webb's laborious researches to Chinese Tartary situated W.S.W. correspond with the measurements
detailed by Mr Colebrooke in the the region of perpetual snow com12th volume of the Asiatic Re. menced, in South America, at the searches above referred to. The elevation of 4800 metres, or 15,747 elevated peaks exceed 20,000, and feet; and that, in Mexico, and in the loftiest even 25,000 feet above latitude 190 to 20°, the limit of perthe level of the sea. Further baro- manent congelation commenced at metrical measurements of the most 4600 metres, or 15,091 feet. The elevated accessible peaks are still same intelligent traveller assigns the however wanting *.
height of 2550 metres, or 8365 feet, In the Himalaya mountains, the to the line of perpetual snow in the limit of congelation is considerably latitude of 45°. 'Deluc also differs higher than in the Cordilleras of the from Professor Leslie. Andes in South America, or in the the height of the line of permanent Alps of Europe. In a communica- snow under the equator at 2434 tion to the Asiatic Society from French toises, or 15,565 English Captain Hodgson, who visited the feet, which was actually observed remotest accessible fountains of the to be the elevation of the curve at Ganges and Jumna rivers, it ap- the basaltic summit of Pinchincha, pears, that the glacier and wall of half a degree south of the equator ; snow from beneath which the Ganges in the mean latitude, according to issues, was by him determined at inferences drawn from observations 12,914 feet above the level of the in France and Chili, from 1500 to 1600 sea. The limit of congelation, then, toises, or about 10,000 English feet; may be reckoned in round numbers, at or near the tropics, as at the Peak either at 13,000 feet above the sea, of Teneriffe, 2100 toises ; and at or in the parallel of 31°, as inferred near the polar circles, nothing. We from Captain Hodgson's measure- need not, however, be astonished at ment; or at 13,500 feet in that of the discrepancies between theory 30°, as concluded by Captain Webb and observation, when we find that from his observations. The former no two observers are agreed about of these differs from Professor Les- almost any one fact. lie's theoretical computation about the same time remark, that the mea1,750, and the latter about 2,000 surements hitherto made in India feet. According to him, the ex- are little better than mere approxi. tremes of the permanent curve of mations; and though the coinci. congelation are, under the equator, dence between the results oblained 15,207 feet, and at the poles 0; and, by Mr Colebrooke and Captain Webb the height in the middle latitude establishes, that certain peaks on the 45°, 7671 feet. The intermediate Himalaya range are the most eleva. degrees are likewise computed; ted points on the earth's surface, hence we have 12,853 feet for the we must wait for further observatropics, and 2419 feet for the polar tions and measurements before we circles.
can venture to speak decidedly as But Baron Humboldt found, by to their absolute height. observation, that, under the equator,
We may at
. It is to be regretted, that so few attempts have bitherto been made to ascertain correctly the beights of the most elevated points in the Caucasian chain. The height of Elburus was estimated by Professor Pallas as equal to that of Mont Blanc, and by the Russian Astronomer Wishnefsky at 16,700 French feet, which is 2000 feet higher. This shows how little reliance can be placed on any thing that has yet been achieved in this interesting department of science.
VIEW OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES, AND OBSERVATIONS
OF TRAVELLERS DURING THE YEAR.
Travels in Africa. - Bowdich's Mission to Ashantee. Travels in Persia.
Sir William Ouseley.-Moritz Von Kotzebue.—Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzclarence's Journey over land from India.--Mr Oxley's second expedition to the interior of New Holland.
CONSIDERABLE contributions have while, on all these occasions, the been this year made to the science Governor of Cape-Coast Castle had of Geography; and although we are been obliged to purchase the retreat not aware that any thing very im- of the invaders by the payment of portant has been discovered, we large sums of money. To prevent the have been furnished with more ex- recurrence of such disasters, the Gotended, and, in general, more accu. vernor had earnestly requested his rate information, on a variety of superiors at home to authorise a mispoints hitherto involved in obscurity, sion to the King of Ashantee; and and with details of the manners, cus- this request being acceded to, some toms, and conditions of several tribes valuable presents, iogether with a of whom almost nothing was previ. draft of instructions, were forwarded ously known. On the subject of by the Spring ship of 1817; and on Africa, always one of prominent in the morning of the 22d of April, the terest, we have only to notice the mission, consisting of Mr James, its account given by Mr Bowdich of nominal head, Mr Bowdich, a young the Mission to Ashantee, which, writer, Mr Hutchison, also a writer, crude and ill-digested as it is, never
Mr Tedlie, assistant surgeon, with a theless supplies some curious parti- proper number of bearers, Ashantee culars of this warlike and ferocious guides, and two native soldiers, set tribe, and of the court of his sable out from Cape Coast Castle. On the Majesty Sai Tooto Quamina. last day of April, the party reached
The origin and objects of this the banks of a stream called the Boomission were, if possible, to form a sempra, of which Mr Bowdich says, treaty of amity with the King of “ Nothing could be more beautiAshantee, and to prevent those in- ful than its scenery: the bank on the vasions of the country of the Fantees, south side was steep, and admitted our allies, which, in 1806, 1811, and but a narrow path; that on the north 1816, had spread general destruc- sloping; on which a small Fetish tion, and been accompanied with house, under the shade of a cachou unparalleled atrocity and bloodshed; tree, fixed the eye; whence it wandered over a rich variety of tint and knife was passed through his checks, foliage, in which light and shade to which his lips were noosed like were most happily blended : the the figure of 8; one ear was cut off small rocks stole through the here and carried before him, the other bage of the banks, and now and then hung to his head by a small bit of ruffled the water: the doom trees skin; there were several gashes in towering in the shrubbery, waved to his back, and a knife was thrust under the most gentle air a rich foliage of each shoulder blade; he was led with dark green, mocking the finest touch a cord passed through his nose, by of the pencil; the tamarind and men disfigured with immense caps of smaller mimosas heightening its ef- shaggy black skins, and drums beat fect by their livelier tint, and the before him; the feeling this horrid more piquant delicacy of their leaf : barbarity excited must be imagined." the cotton trees overtopped the It is not german to our present whole, enwreathed in convolvuli
, and purpose to notice the “ palavers" several elegant little trees, unknown held with Sai Tooto Quamina, and to me, rose in the background, in his caboceers, in which, by his own termixed with palms, and made the shewing, Mr Bowdich acquitted coup d'œil enchanting. The bright himself to a miracle, and even drew rays of the sun were sobered by the forth a compliment from the sooty rich reflections of the water; and monarch, who said, “ he liked his there was a mild beauty in the land- palaver very much," (a matter in scape congenial to barbarism, which which we are sorry to differ with so' imposed the expectation of elegance high an authority): But the followand refinement. I attempted a sketch, ing passage will give a frightful idea but it was far beyond my rude pen- of some of the customs prevalent cil; the expression of the scene could among the Ashantees, who indeed only have been traced in the profile offer up human sacrifices on almost.« of every tree; and it seemed to de- every occasion. Whether they are fy any touches, but those of a Claude also addicted to cannibalism, we are or a Wilson, to depict the life of its not informed. beauty.”
« On the death of a King, all the At last they reached the capital customs which have been made for Coomassie, which is estimated at 146 the subjects who have died during miles, (or about 97 miles of direct his reign, must be simultaneously redistance) from Cape-Coast Castle, peated by the families, (the human sa. and which they entered in great crifices as well as the carousals and
And here they were soon pageantry) to amplify that for the modoomed to witness a spectacle of the narch, which is also solemnised indemost horrid and revolting descrip- pendently, but, at the same time, in tion, and which they soon found to every excess of extravagance and bar. be as frequent as it is disgustingly barity. The brothers, sons, and new dreadful and inhuman.
phews of the King, affecting tempo“ Here our attention was forced rary insanity, burst forth with their from the astonishment of the crowd muskets, and fire promiscuously ato a most inhuman spectacle, which mongst the crowd; even a man of was paraded before us for some mi- rank, if they meet him, is their vicnutes; it was a man whom they were tim, nor is their murder of him or tormenting previous to sacrifice; his any other, on such an occasion, vi. hands were pinioned behind him, a sited or prevented; the scene can
scarcely be imagined. Few persons who accompanied the army of Abi. of rank dare to stir from their houses niowa in his political capacity, dyfor the first two or three days, but ing at Akrofroom in Aquapim, durreligiously drive forth all their vassalsing the campaign, his body was kept and slaves, as the most acceptable with the army two months before it composition of their own absence. arrived at Coomassie. I could not get The King's Ocras are all murdered any information on their treatment on bis tomb, to the number of a hun. of the corpse, beyond their invariadred or more, and women in abun- ble reply, that they smoked it well dance. I was assured by several, over a slow fire." that the custom for Saï Quamina, The population of Coomassie was was repeated weekly for three months, asserted by the Ashantees to exceed and that two hundred slaves were sa- 100,000 souls ; but, judging from crificed, and 25 barrels of powder the crowd which he saw collected on fired, each time. But the custom for gala-days and festivals, Mr Bowdich the King's mother, the regent of the thinks it not greater than that of kingdom during the invasion of Fan- Sansanding, which Mr Park esti. teé, is most celebrated. The King of mated at 30,000. How Mr Bowdich himself devoted 3000 victims, (up- could establish a comparison with wards of 2000 of whom were Fantee Sansanding, which he had never viprisoners) and 25 barrels of powder*. sited, he does not think proper to inDwabin, Kokoofoo, Becqua, Soota, form us. and Marmpong, furnished 100 vic- The chapter on Geography is sintims, and 20 barrels of powder, gularly obscure and involved. The each, and most of the smaller towns routes obtained from the Moors
may 10 victims, and two barrels of pow. be correct; but Mr Bowdich is mis. der, each. The Kings, and Kings taken, in supposing them to trace only, are buried in the cemetery at the Niger to the Nile.” It is evident Bantama, and the sacred gold from inspection, that none of them buried with them; their bones pretend to follow the course of the are afterwards deposited in a build. river, but only the usual routes which ing there, opposite to which is the lie very considerably to the northward largest brass pan I ever saw, (for of it. All the information collected sacrifices,) being about five feet in from the Moors by Horneman, diameter, with four small lions on Burckhardt, Jackson, and others, athe edge. Here 'human sacrifices grees, however, in one point-and are frequent and ordinary, to water the coincidence is remarkable and the graves of the Kings. The bodies deserving of particular attentionof chiefs are frequently carried about that the Joliba or Niger is the same with the army, to keep them for in- river with the Bahr el Abiad, or Nile terment at home, and eminent re
of Egypt. The testimony collected volters or enemies also, to be ex. by Mr Hutchison, who was left as posed in the capital. Boiteäm, (the resident at Coomassie, and whose father of Otee the fourth linguist,) Diary, by the way, is the most valu
Suetonius tells us that Augustus sacrificed 300 of the principal citizens of Perusia, to the manes of bis uncle Julius. We read in Prevost, that 64,080 persons were sacrificed, with aggravated barbarity, in the dedication of a temple in Mexico.