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den, from a manuscript of the period, gives the following description of it:
"The principal nave stood on lofty arches of hewn stone, jointed in the nicest manner, and the vault was covered with a strong double arched roof of stone on both sides. The cross, which embraced the choir, and by its transept supported a high tower in the middle, rose first with a low strong arch, and then swelled out with several winding staircases, to the single wall up to the wooden roof which was carefully covered with lead." This description remarkably coincides with the appearance of this church in the Bayeux tapestry; and if, as seems to be the opinion of the best antiquaries, it is the work of Saxon embroiderers, we may consider it to be an accurate representation. In this tapestry the "lofty arches of hewn stone" are raised on tall pillars, while a range of circular-headed windows are placed above them; the principal doorway is very lofty, and, judging even from this rude picture, the church, as finished by the Confessor, must have appeared to the wondering Saxon a most stately and splendid structure. Not long had the devout king to rejoice in the completion of his work; he fell ill on the Christmas-day; the consecration was fixed for the day after, and, though rapidly sinking, he attended the service; but prayer, and relic, and holy water, were useless—the aid of the chief Apostle was implored in vain—Edward closed his eyes on the 5th of January, and the following day saw him consigned to his tomb in the splendid church at whose dedication he had so lately assisted.
The Norman conquest brought no curtailment of immunities, or diminution of revenue to the monks of Westminster. William, who strictly kept his first promise—" Paix a Sainct Yglise "—seems to have regarded the abbey-church of Westminster with peculiar marks of favour. At his first entrance he offered a rich pall on St. Peter's altar and fifty marks of silver, two palls on the place of king Edward's burial (doubtless in gratitude for that royal legacy—a kingdom), and two marks of gold and two palls on the high altar. He also caused himself to be crowned there, granted an additional charter to the convent, and constructed a splendid tomb "of gold and silver," says Malmsbury, to the memory of the Confessor's wife, the fair and learned Editha.
Such was the church, whither, surrounded by the great officers of state, Maude was led to receive the crown of England; and around her stood many a prelate and noble of wide renown in that day. Anselm, the primate, the illustrious successor of Lanfranc,—he who, like his teacher, in early life quitted his native Italy, to become a dweller in the lowly abbey of Bee; who successively became its prior and abbot, and then primate of England;—he, the great theological champion at the council of Barr, whose metaphysical acuteness, and whose zeal for the orthodox faith, alike astonished the pope and the Greek delegates, and preserved the Latin church from the inroads of the Arian heresy;* but who, in
* The subject of dispute was "the procession of the Holy Ghost." St. Anselm's works are very numerous, and, from their forgotten stores, many 36
his old age, was compelled to quit his cherished studies, to contend alike against a haughty and unyielding king, and a rude and a factious clergy.
And beside him stood a churchman of a widely different character, bishop Roger of Sarum, the king's chancellor, the story of whose introduction to royal favour, is equally characteristic of the man and of the times. At the period when Henry was serving under his brother William, with a band of mercenaries, they entered a church near Caen, and requested the priest to say a mass as quickly as possible. This priest was Roger, who promptly complied with their request, and hurried over the service in so laudable a manner that they unanimously declared that it would be impossible to find a priest more suitable for a soldier's chaplain: "And therefore," says William of Newborough, "when the royal youth said, * Follow me!' he adhered as closely as Peter to his heavenly Lord; save that Peter left his vessel to follow the King of kings, while Roger, quitting his church to be chaplain to the prince, became but a blind leader of the blind." In his new office, Roger acquitted himself so well that Henry, on his accession, advanced him to the chancellorship, and to the see of Sarum. His last years afforded a strong proof of the versatility of fortune. After munificently expending immense sums on his cathedral at Old Sarum, and upon the rebuilding of
an opinion has been derived, which modern writers have brought forth as their own. IJis metaphysical works, which are many, are considered by competent judges to display great acuteness; while his devotional works possess that character of deep and sincere devotion, which would render a selection from them a valuable boon to the religious world.
M alrnsbury abbey (which noble church still presents so fine a specimen of the Norman style), and seeing two nephews bishops of Lincoln and Ely, he fell, upon the accession of Stephen, into deep disgrace. "In one day," says Malmsbury, "he saw his most dearly beloved knight slain before his eyes; on the next day he was compelled to flee; one nephew was detained, the other bound in chains, and his castles and treasures all given up;" and when, in his last illness, he was allowed to retire to Sarum, even his expiring moments were disturbed by plundering foemen, who carried away the remaining money and jewels which he possessed, and which he had dedicated to the completion of his cathedral, even from the high altar, where, vainly trusting to the devotional feeling of these fierce soldiers, he had for security placed them.
Only one other prelate of this period claims our notice; this is Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, that celebrated architect to whom the construction of the keep of the Tower has been assigned. This prelate, also a Norman, washigh in favour with the Conqueror, and was employed by him to erect several castles. His architectural talents were, however, equally displayed in ecclesiastical buildings; and he is eulogized by contemporary historians for the splendid cathedral which he built at Rochester, and for the many noble churches which he erected throughout his diocese.
Of the principal nobles of England and Normandy, not many, perhaps, were present: some were in the land of the East, beneath the banner of the chivalrous Robert; while others remained at their respective castles, sullenly preparing to assert the brother's right to the usurped throne, or to throw off the yoke, alike of Henry or Robert, that they might reign in undisputed sovereignty over their small bands of vassals. Among the nobles who adhered to Henry, from that evening that witnessed the death of the Red King, were some, however, distinguished alike for their large possessions, and for their military and statesmanlike skill. There was Roger de Bigod, the bold Norman adventurer, who won his broad lands in Norfolk and Suffolk by his own good sword; who, devoted in his attachment to the Conqueror, was equally devoted to his favourite son, but who, old as he then was, intended to have braced on his harness and set out for Palestine. Either from increasing infirmity or the dissuasion of his friends, he gave up this intention, and, according to the custom of those days, commuted his vow by applying the money it would have cost him toward building and endowing the monastery of Thetford, where soon after he was laid.
Another devoted friend of Henry was the wealthy and powerful earl of Chester, lord of the Welch marches, and appropriately designated Hugh Lupus, who seems to have been the beau ideal of the turbulent, profligate, and ferocious feudal lord. "He was not only abundantly liberal," says Ordericus Vitalis, "but profusely prodigal; and carried not a family, but an army with him from place to place. He took no account of receipts or disbursements, but daily wasted his estates; delighting more in falconers and huntsmen, than in tillers of the land