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privileges have made it all that it is; English privileges alone will make it all it can be.

In full confidence of this unalterable truth, I now (quod felix faustumque sit!) lay the first stone of the Temple of Peace; and I move you,

5

That the colonies and plantations of Great Britain in North America, consisting of fourteen separate governments, and containing two millions and upwards of free inhabitants, have not had the liberty and privilege of electing and sending any knights and burgesses, or others, to represent them in the high court of Parlia- ic

ment.

Upon this resolution the previous question was put and carried : for the previous question, 270 ; against it, 78.

As the propositions were opened separately in the body of the speech, the reader perhaps may wish to see 15 the whole of them together in the form in which they were moved for. The first four motions and the last had the previous question put on them. The others were negatived. The words in italics were, by an amendment that was carried, left out of the motion ; which will appear 20 in the journals, though it is not the practice to insert such amendments in the votes.

Moved,

That the colonies and plantations of Great Britain in North America, consisting of fourteen separate governments, and con- 25 taining two millions and upwards of free inhabitants, have not haa

1 Presented.

the liberty and privilege of electing and sending any knights and burgesses, or others, to represent them in the high court of Parliament.

That the said colonies and plantations have been liable to, and 5 bounden by, several subsidies, payments, rates and taxes, given

and granted by Parliament, though the said colonies and plantations have not their knights and burgesses in the said high court of Parliament, of their own election, to represent the condition of

their country; by lack whereof they have been oftentimes touched 10 and grieved by subsidies given, granted and assented to, in the said

court, in a manner prejudicial to the commonwealth, quietness, rest and peace of the subjects inhabiting within the same.

That, from the distance of the said colonies and from other circumstances, no method hath hitherto been devised for procuring 15 a representation in Parliament for the said colonies.

That each of the said colonies hath within itself a body, chosen in part or in the whole by the freemen, freeholders or other free inhabitants thereof, commonly called the general assembly, or gen

eral court, with powers legally to raise, levy and assess, according 20 to the several usages of such colonies, duties and taxes towards

defraying all sorts of public services.

That the said general assemblies, general courts, or other bodies legally qualified as aforesaid, have at sundry times freely granted

several large subsidies and public aids for his Majesty's service, 25 according to their abilities, when required thereto by letter from

one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of state; and that their right to grant the same and their cheerfulness and sufficiency in the said grants have been at sundry times acknowledged by Parliament.

That it hath been found by experience that the manner of grant30 ing the said supplies and aids by the said general assemblies hath

been more agreeable to the said colonies, and more beneficial and

conducive to the public service, than the mode of giving and granting aids in Parliament, to be raised and paid in the said colonies.

That it may be proper to repeal an act made in the seventh year of the reign of his present Majesty, entitled, “ An act for granting certain duties in the British colonies and plantations in America; 5 fur allowing a drawback of the duties of customs upon the exportation from this kingdom of coffee and cocoanuts of the produce of the said colonies or plantations; for discontinuing the drawbacks payable on China earthenware exported to America; and for more effectually preventing the clandestine running of goods in 10 the said colonies and plantations."

That it may be proper to repeal an act made in the fourteenth year of the reign of his present Majesty, entitled, “ An act to discontinue, in such manner and for such time as are therein mentioned, the landing and discharging, lading or shipping, of goods, wares 15 and merchandise, at the town and within the harbor of Boston, in the province of Massachusetts Bay, in North America.”

That it may be proper to repeal an act made in the fourteenth year of the reign of his present Majesty, entitled, “An act for the impartial administration of justice in the cases of persons questioned 20 for any acts done by them in the execution of the law, or for the suppression of riots and tumults, in the province of Massachusetts Bay, in New England.”

That it may be proper to repeal an act made in the fourteenth year of the reign of his present Majesty, entitled, “ An act for the 25 better regulating the government of the province of the Massachusetts Bay, in New England.” That it

may

be proper to explain and amend an act made in the thirty-fifth year of the reign of King Henry the Eighth, entitled, "An act for the trial of treasons committed out of the king's 30 dominions."

BURKE ON CONCILIATION - -9

That from the time when the general assembly, or general court, of any colony or plantation in North America shall have appointed, by act of assembly duly confirmed, a settled salary to the offices of the chief justice and other judges of the superior court, it may be 5 proper that the said chief justice and other judges of the superior courts of such colony shall hold his and their office and offices during their good behaviour, and shall not be removed therefrom but when the said removal shall be adjudged by his Majesty in

council, upon a hearing on complaint from the general assembly, 10 or on a complaint from the governor or council or the house of rep

resentatives, severally, of the colony in which the said chief justice and other judges have exercised the said offices.

That it may be proper to regulate the courts of admiralty or viceadmiralty authorized by the fifteenth chapter of the fourth of 15 George the Third, in such a manner as to make the same more

commodious to those who sue or are sued in the said courts; and to provide for the more decent maintenance of the judges in the same.

NOTES

The heavy marginal figures stand for page, and the lighter ones for line.

37 : I.

I hope, Sir, etc. Speeches in the House of Commons are addressed to the Speaker, who is often referred to as the Chair. The Speaker at this time was Sir Fletcher Norton (1716-1789), “a shrewd, unprincipled man, of good abilities and offensive manners,” who held the office from 1770 to 1780.

37 : 7. My motion. The motion which he was to offer at the conclusion of his speech.

37 : 8. Grand penal bill. The bill introduced by Lord North, February 10, 1775.

37 : 10. Returned to us from the other House. The bill had passed the Commons March 8, and been sent to the Lords. The Lords had added an amendment extending the provisions of the bill to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. The bill came back to the Commons for approval in its amended form.

37 : 13. Once more in possession of our deliberative capacity. Once more in a position to discuss the bill. While the bill was before the Lords it could not with propriety be discussed by the Commons.

37 : 19. First day of the session. The session began November 29, 1774

38 : 3. Incongruous mixture of coercion and restraint. The bill aimed to break down the resistance to the tea duty at the same time that it restrained the colonial trade. The union of the two objects hardly seems incongruous.

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