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A. D. Rifhebucta and Bouctox, with a number of prin1760.

cipal men of those places a, came again on the 3oth of January, to renew their submission in a

a Extract of a letter from Colonel Frye to the governor of Nequ England, datéd Fort Cumberland, Chignexto, March 7, 1760.

With the French priest came two Indian chiefs, viz. Paul Lawrence and Augustine Michael : Lawrence tells me he was a prisoner in Boston, and lived with Mr. Henshaw, a blacksmith; he is chief of a tribe that before the war lived at La Have: Augustine is chief of a tribe at Rifhebucta. I have received their submissions for themselves and tribes, to his Britannic Majesty, and sent them to Halifax for the terms by Governor Lawrence. I have likewise received the submissions of two other chiefs, whom I dealt with as those before-men. tioned, and was in hopes (which I mentioned to Mr. Manach) I had no more treaties to make with savages; but he told me I was miitaken, for there would be a great many more here upon the same business, as soon as the spring hunting was over; and upon my enquiring how many, he gave me a list of fourteen chiefs, including those already-mentioned, mot of whom he said would come.

I was furprized to hear of such a number of Indian chiefs in this part of America ; and Mr. Manach further told me, that they were all of one nation, and known by the name of Mickmacks; and that they were very numerous, amounting to near 3000 souls ; that he had learned their language fince he had been amongst them, and found so much excellence in it, that he was well perfuaded, if the beauties of it were known in Europe, there would be seminaries erected for the

propa: gation of it. How that might be, is better known to him than to those who know nothing of the language : but I think I may venture to say, that if there be so many Indians as he fays there are, I know this province, as it abounds very plentifully with furs, may reap a valt advantage by them, pro. vided Canada returns not into the hands of the French.


formal manner, by subscribing to articles drawn A. D.

176. suitable to the case.

Nothing more remained to give the finishing blow to the French dominions in North America, but to scour the coasts of their shipping, which kept lurking in the inlets and obscure bays. Some of which had fecreted themselves at Riftigouchi, in the bottom of the Bay of Chaleurs. Captain Byron, then senior officer of the King's Captain

Byron deships at Louisbourg, having notice of them from Brigadier-General Whitmore, immediately failed French

thips. with the Fame, Dorsetshire, Achilles, Scarborough and Repulse, to attack and to destroy them, and performed this service with great bravery, conduct and honour. But the hoftilities commenced last year by the The Che

rokee war. Cherokees, would not yet permit the British sword to be sheathed. A war that had required the assistance of a detachment of regular forces, under General Abercrombie, in the spring, and now demanded a much stronger force to bring them under subjection, which General Amherst, as soon as he could spare them, fent under Colonel Grant.

To understand the origin and the object of this Origin of war, with the Cherokees; though, it may be very with the possible, the fame was, ar this juncture, particu- Cherokees. larly blown up by French emiffaries; it will be necessary to explain the first cause, upon which this tribe of Indians founded their complaint against the English, and defend the justice and necessity of their taking up arms.

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tion of


A. D.

The Cherokees live in one of the healthiest 1760.

and most beautiful countries in the world, divided Descrip

into four districts, among the Apalachian Mountheir coun- tains ; in which were found about forty villages try.

or towns, and about 2000 men fit to bear arms, and trained up for the defence of their country,

before their last war with Carolina. Friends to After that war, they took every opportunity the Eng

to cultivate a good understanding with the English ; and sent, at different times, 4 or 500 men

to join our forces, acting on the Ohio against Cause of the French. It was in their return home from complaint the campaign in the year 1758, that we find the

origin of their present enmity. They had lost most of their horses in our service : and in their way made free with some stray horses on the back parts of Virginia : which hitherto had been passed

over, as a petty offence; but the back settlers Severely rung the alarm, and the Virginian militia fell upon punished. them suddenly, and killed many of the Che

rokees, not the least suspecting that they should be treated as enemies, by a nation they had been serving with the risk of their lives. But, though they were obliged at present to retire ; they could not forgive the injury, and fought an opportunity

to take satisfaction. Theii dicon They could not reconcile the severe treatment guit.

they met with from the Virginians, purely for taking up a few wild horses to carry them home, who had not only lost their own in their defence,

► See note

on page 184. Vol. I.


but had neglected their hunting season, which is A. D.

1760. the Indian harvest, quitted their homes, and endured a fatiguing march of 1200 miles out and in. This disguft was aggravated by the ill usage they had met with in trade, and in the unwarrantable behaviour of the traders and their fervants, who resided in their towns, and debauched their wives and daughters. Which fort of conduct conveyed to the sensible Indians, a very mean opinion of all Europeans; and disposed them the more to seek revenge : and this quarrel with the Virginians opened such a field to their resentment, that they were soon at war with other neighbouring colonies. For, their war-parties, Hostilities. unacquainted with the provincial boundaries, frequently mistook North Carolina for Virginia, and once scalped a woman and child within the borders of South Carolina. At last, advice being received, that these Indians threatened Fort Loudon, and that they had actually killed a packhorseman, to which they were particularly fpirited on by French emissaries, who promised to march to their aid and asistance; it was resolved to punish them.

The government of South Carolina were justly Defeated offended at these insults, and resolved to resent,

pelled, and to endeavour to put a stop to them, by a proper and early exertion of the provincial strength, and to reduce the Indians to reason. For this purpose the legislature enabled Governor Lyttleton to raise and maintain a body of men ; and

and re

• They both got to Charles-Town, and recovered.

A 4




the go



A.D. his Excellency, with great zeal and activity im1760.

mediately embodied and marched with 800 mili-
Force raif-
ed against litia and 300 regular troops, into the Cherokee

country; providing in the mean time for the safecy
of Fort Loudon, by a reinforcement fent thither
under the command of Captain Stuart.

This reinforcement" marched through part of
the Cherokee country, 'to the place of their desti-
nation; which, with Captain Stuare's further in-
formation of the preparations making at Charles-

Town, to commence hoftilities against them, fo Their terrified the Indians, that many of their headapply to men, who were unwilling to break with the pro

vince, set out immediately for Charles-Town Pacific pro

with a resolution to give the government all the pocal.

satisfaction in their power, without having recourse
to arms, for any mischief their unmanageable
young men might have done, and to settle all dif.
ferences amicably, or, to use their own phraseology,
To brighten the chain of friendship, that began
to rust, between them and the English their bre-

Our American correspondent, to whom we are

indebted for this whole account, here remarks, Their poli. That the Indian nation behind our fettlements did

never acknowledge themselves to be subjects of
Great Britain ; but only to be the friends and
brethren of the English. And to illustrate this,
he remarks, That it is certain they are not sub-
ject to our laws ; That they have no magistrates

Lical Atate.


About the middle of October 1759.


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