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73. On the opening of the campaign the next year (1780) the British troops left Rhode Inland. An expedition under Ceneral Clinton and Lord Cornwallis, was undertaken against Charlefton, South Carolina, where General Lincoln command. ed. This town, atter a close fiege of about fix weeks, was fur: rendered to the British commander ; and General Lincoln, and the whole American gorrifon, wire made prisoners,
14. General Gates was appointed to the command in the fouthern department, and another army collected. In Auguft, Lord Cornwallis attacked the American troops at Camden, in South Carolina, and routed them with considerable loss. He afterwards marched through the southern Rates, and supposed ibem entirely subdued,
75. The kume summer, the British troops made frequent ina curfions from New York into the Jei lies; ravaging and plundering the country, In one of these defcents, the Rev. Mr. Cald. well, a respectable clergyman and warm patriot, and his lady, were inhumanly murdered by the favage foldiery.
76. In July, a French feet, under Monfieur de Ternay, with a body of land forces, commanded by Count de Rochambeau, arrived at Rhode Island, to the great joy of the Anericans.
77. This year was also distinguished by the infamous treason of Arnold. General Washington having some business to trans. act at Weathersfield in Connecticut, left Arnold to command the important post of Wefi.Point, which guards a pass in Huda son's river, about fixty miles from New York. Arnold's con. duct in the city of Philadelphia, the preceding winter, had been censured ; and the treatment he received in consequence, had given him effence.
78. He determined to take revenge ; and for this purpose, he entered into a begociation with fir Henry Clinton to deliver West Point and the army, into the hands of the British. While General Washington was ablent, he dismounted the cannon in some of the forts, and took other fteps to render the taking of che poft easy for the enemy.
79. But by a providential discovery, the whole plan was den feated. Major Andre, aid to Gereral Clinton, a brave officer, who had been fent up the river as a spy, to concert the plan of operations with Arnold, was taken, condemned by a court mar. tial, and executed.
80. Arnold made his escape by getting on board the Vul. ture, a British vessel, which lay in the river, His conduct
has stamped him with infamy and like all traitors, he is defpia sed by all mankind. General Washington arrived in camp just after Arnold had made his escape, and restored orders in the garrison.
81. After the defeat of General Gates in Carolina, General Greene was appointed to the command in the southern department. From this period, things in that quarter wore a more favorable aspect. Colone! Tarleton, the active commander of the British legion, was defeated by General Morgan, the intre. pid commander of the riflemen.
82. After a variety of movements, the iwo armies met as Guilford, in North Carolina. Here was one of the best fought actions during the war, General Greene and Lord Cornwa'. lis'exerted themselves at the head of their respective armies, and altho the Americans were obliged to retire from the field of battle, yet the British army suffered an immense loss, and could not pursue the victory, This action happened on the 15th of March, 1782.
83. In the spring, Arnold, who was made a brigadier gene. ral in the Britis service, with a small number of troops failed for Virginia, and plandered the country. This called the attention of the French fleet to that quarter;
and a naval engage. ment took place between the English and French, in which some of the English ships were much damaged, and one entire. ly disabled.
84. After the battle at Guilford, General Greene moved to. wards South Carolina, to drive the British from their posts in that statea Here Lord Rawdon obtained an inconfiderable ad. vantage over the Americans near Camden.
85. But General Greene more than recovered this disadvan. tage, by the brilliant and successful action at the Entaw Springs ; where General Marian distinguished himself and the brave Colonel Washington was wounded and taken prisoner.
86. Lord Cornwallis finding General Greene successful in Carolina, marched to Virginia, collected his forces, and fortified himself in Yorktown. In the mean time, Arnold made an in.. curfion into Connecticut, burnt a part of New.Londen, took Fort Griswold by storm, and put the garrison to the sword.
87. The garrison consisted chiefly of men suddenly college ed from the little town of Groton, which, by the favage cra elty of the British officer who commanded the attack, loft, in one hour, almost all its heads of families. The brave Colonel
Ledyard, who commanded the fort, was slaia with his owa fword, after he had surrendered.
88. The Marquis de la Fayette, the brave and generous nobleman, whole services command the gratitude of every Ameri. can, had been dispatched from the main army, to watch the mo. tions of Lord Cornwalls in Virginia.
89. About the latt of Auguft, Count de Grafle arrived with a large fleet in the Chesapeak, and blocked up the British troops at Yorkiown. Admiral Greaves, with a British feet appeared off the Capes, and an action succeeded, but it was not decisive.
90, General Washington had before this time, moved the main body of his army, together with the French troops, to the Southward ; and as foon as he heard of the arrival of the French fleet in the Chesapeak, he made rapid marches to the head of Elk, swbere embarking the troops, he soon arrived at Yorktown,
91. A clofe fiege immediately commenced, and was carried on with such vigor, by the combined forces of America and France, that Lord Cornwallis was obliged to furrender. This florious event, which took place on the 19th of October, 1781, decided the contest in favor of America, and laid the founda. tion of a general peace.
.92. A few months after the surrender of Cornwallis, the Bria tish evacuated all their posts in South. Carolina and Georgia, and retired to the main army in New-York.
93. The next spring (1782) Sir Guy Carleton arrived in New.York and cook command of the British army in America." Immediately after his arrival, he acquanted General Washington and Congress, that negociations for a peace had been commenced at Paris,
94. On the 30th of November, 1782, the provisional articles of peace were signed at Paris, by which Great Britain acknow. ledged the independence and sovereignty of the United States of America,
95. Thus ended a long and arduoils conflict, in which Great. Priiain expended near a hundred millions of hundred thousand lives, and won no:hing. America endured every cruelty end diftress from her enemies; lost many lives and much treasure--but delivered herself from a foreign dominion, and gained a rank amerg the nations of the earth,
LESSONS IN SPEAKING.
ORATION, delivered at Bolton, March 5, 1772, by Dr.
JOSEPH WARREN ; in commemoration of the evening of the fifth of March, 1770; when a number of citizens were killed ly a
party of Britill troopis, quartered among them, in time of peace e * W
THEN we turn over the hiftorie page, and trace the lutions which have lo often raried the face of the worlu, ftrike our minds with folenn furprise, and we are naturally led to fearch for the causes of Euch altonishing changes.
2. That man is formed for social life, is an observation, which upon our firkt enquiry, presents it felf to our view. Governa ment has its origin in the weakness of individuals, and hath for its end, the frength and security of all; and solong as the means: of effecting this important end, are thoroughly known, and rem tigioully attended 19, government is one of the riehest bleffings to mankind, and ought to be held in the higelt veneration.
3. In young and new formed communities, the grand defiga of this iaftitution, is most generally understood, and mott ftrict. ly regarded'; the motives which urged to the local compact, cannot be at once forgotten, and that equality which is remembered to have fublited io lately among them, prevents those who are cloathed with authority from attempting to invade the freedom of their brethren ; or, if such an attempt is made, it
prem vents the community from fuffering the offender lo go unpuna ithcc.
4. Every member feels it to be his interest, and knows it to be his duty, to preserve inviolate the conttitution on which the public safety, depends, and is equally ready to aflift the magia frate in the execution : the laws, and the fuljed in the defence of his right. So long as the noble attachment to a constitua tion, founded on free and benevolent principles, exists is full vige or, in any state, that itate must be flourishing and happy.
5. It was this noble attachment to a free conititution which raised ancient Rome from the finallest beginnings, to that bright fummit of happiness and glory 10 which the arrived; and it was the loss of this which plunged her from that summit, into the black gulph of infamy and facery.
6. It was this attachment which infpired her fenators with Wildom; it was this which glowed in the breast of her heroes 3
it was this which guarded her liberties, and extended her de. minions, gave peace at home, and commanded respect abroad; and when this decayed, her magistrates lost their reverence for jutice and laws, and degenerated into tyrants and oppressors-her senators forgetful of their dignity, and seduced by base cora ruption, betrayed their country-her soldiers, regardless of their relation to the community and urged only by the hopes of plander and rapine, unfeelingly committed the most flagrant enormia ties; and hired to the trade of death, with relentless fury they perpetrated the most cruel murders; by which the ftreets of imperial Rome were drenched with her noblest blood.
7. Thus this empress of the world lost her dominions abroad, and her inhabitants, disselute in their maoners, at length became contented slaves; and the stands to this day, the scorn and de. rision of nations, and a monument of this eternal truth that public happiness depends on a virtuous and unfbaken attachment to a free constitution.
8. It was this attachment to a constitution founded on free and benevolent principles, which infpired the first settlers of this country : they saw with grief the daring outrages committed on the free conftitution of their native land--they knew that no. thing but à civil war could at that time restoré its pristine purity.
9. So hard was it to resolve to embrue their hands in the blood of their brethren, that they chose rather tu quit their fair poffeffions, and seek another habitation in a diftant clime. When they came to this new world, which they fairly purchafed of the Indian natives, the only rightful proprietors, they cultivated the then barren soil, by their inceslaut labor, and defended their dear bought pofleffions with the fortitude of the christian, and the bravery of the hero,
10. After various struggles, which, during the tyrannic reigns of the house of STUART, were constantly maintained be. tween right and wrong, between liberty and Nlavery, the conneca tion between Great-Britain and ihis colony, was settled in the reign of King William and Queen Mary, by a compact, the conditions of which were expresses in a charter ; by which all the liberties and immunities of British subjects, were secured to this province, as fully and as absolutely as they possibly could be by any human instrument which can be devised.
11. It is undeniably true, that the greatest and most im. portant right of a British subject is, that he hall be governed by