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it not be much more pleasant to have quiet and orderly behavior here, than to have this room a scene of racket, and disorder, and noise ? When you feel inclined to have a little fun or play, you can easily go into the woodhouse, or take a run out of doors. But here, all should be calmness, peace, and order. “But it may happen, that one or more of you may

be heedless, when I am not here, and break this good rule. I should be very sorry, were that the case. But, should it happen, I hope that some of you, who are more attentive, will mildly tell him how wrong it is, and how sorry I shall be to hear it. And if he then stop, perhaps it will be best to say nothing more about it, in hopes such a thing may never happen again. But it will not do to let the little culprit go on, to spoil all your harmony, and injure your tempers. If he will not stop, those who are good must consult, as to who will be the most proper to

If it be a boy who acts badly, perhaps it will be best for the oldest girl to let me know; if a girl, the oldest boy."

In these two little talks, the whole subject of discipline in the school has been discussed. But a teacher should exercise a healthful influence out of school, as well as in it. She should frequently advise them as to their amusements, pointing out the bad tendency of those that lead to gambling, or that are connected, directly or remotely, with cruelty to animals. She should also, sometimes, visit them at play, and even occasionally join with them.

But we have now to inquire, by what means our one simple rule of perfect order and regularity is to be carried into effect. Fortunately, these are exceedingly simple. The first approaches to disorderly conduct must be uniformly noticed in a mild, but determined tone. Defective discipline arises, chiefly, from a want of firmness and steadiness in the teacher, and too great laxity at the commencement of the school. In most cases, the mere notice of the beginning of evil will suffice to put a stop to it. But, should it not prove so, all business should immediately be laid aside, until the restoration of perfect discipline. The teacher should, at once, inform the little culprit, mildly but firmly, that the operations of the school are totally suspended, till order is restored. This apparent waste of time will prove the truest economy. Every minute so spent will save hours, before the expiration of the term.

After a short, silent pause, the offender may be asked, “ If it be right, that he should thus disturb the school ?” and “ If he be sorry for his conduct ?” Should the answers be favorable, the teacher may say, “ As he repents, I suppose we must forgive him. Shall we do so ?” When forgiven, the teacher may say, “I trust you will be very careful in future; you see you have made (thirty] of us lose, each, [ten] minutes of valuable time, that ought to have been spent in study. That is a loss to us of [five] hours, altogether. But I presume you did not think of that, or you never would have acted so.” But, if no answer, or improper ones, be returned to these questions, the rest of the school may be directed to stand up, and give attention. They may then be asked, “ Is this child acting correctly ?"._ Must we all submit to him, and have our good rule broken ?”—“ Would this be right ?" If still obdurate, the next course might be, to appoint two boys and two girls to step out with the little culprit, and reason with him, on the incorrectness of his course.

If the obstinacy continue after this, two of the boys may be despatched for one of the committee. Meanwhile, perfect silence should be kept in the school, and all studies laid aside. To the committee, when he appears, say, “ Here is a child who refuses to conform to the rules of the school, and persists in disturbing us. It will be necessary, I fear, for you to punish him, or relieve us of his presence. Is there any child who could resist such a course as this? If so, he is fit only for a house of refuge, and should not be allowed the privilege of the school, till his parents brought about a change of conduct. But what would be the effect of such discipline upon the others ? Would they not distinctly see the folly of such behavior, and feel, that it could not pass with impunity ? Corporal punishment, and even violent scolding, has but too frequently the effect of inflaming the passions of the teacher, and exhibiting him in a very un

amiable light, before those who ought to love and reverence him.

It has also the tendency, with some, to excite a dislike to study. Others, again, are of so sensitive a disposition, that, in the words of a quaint old author, " to such a lad, a frown is a whipping ; and a whipping, a death.” In a third, it will awaken a spirit of bitterness, or of defiance. But all children are strongly affected by the opinions of their playmates. Many a little hero, who would triumph in a sound whipping, would quail under the distinctly-expressed disapprobation of his companions, elicited as above.*

* Just as I had written the above, one of our best teachers happening to call, I read it over to him, and asked his opinion, as to the efficacy of this method of governing a school. “ The better to enable you to judge,” replied he, “I will relate to you a circumstance, which bappened at the school in your district, when I taught there, a few years ago. As there is no play-ground attached to the school, the scholars, of course, as you know, amuse themselves during recess, in the road ; and sliding on a board down the long bill, above the school, is a favorite exercise, in Winter. One morning, a neighbor, who lived half-way up the hill, called, to request me to try to prevail on the scholars to desist from this amusement, as they made the road so slippery, that the females of the family were afraid to step out of doors. I I told him I would talk to them about it, but, as my authority was confined to the school, it was doubtful whether it would be of much use. Accordingly, as soon as the children were assembled, I briefly stated the facts, and asked, if they were willing to desist. "I pretend to no authority over your amusements,' said I ; 'I merely ask, if you think it right to continue this play, when you find it so inconvenient for our neighbors. Now, I wish all of you who think it right, to hold up your hands.' Not a single hand was raised. Now,' continued I, ' let us try it the other way. All who think it wrong, will please to hold up their hands.' At these words, a general rustle was heard in the school, and, on looking around, I observed that every hand was raised. Immediately, one of the boys, with eyes sparkling with humor, asked, if it was right for the girls to vote. · Yes, James,' said I ;'when we are considering about right and wrong, I wish all, girls as well as boys, to vote. And now, children, who, among you, are willing to give up what you all think is wrong? I should be sorry to spoil your play ; but, if you

will give up sliding in the road, I will go out with you, and we will try and find some other place for amusement. Now, all who are willing to slop sliding, hold up your hands.' Every hand was again raised. At intermission, I accordingly pointed out an adjoining field, where their favorite play might be pursued, though it was a far inferior situation to the one they had relinquished. It appeared, however, that three of the boys, brothers, after trying the new spot, repented of their promise, and, presuming on what I had said about want of authority over their

There are two very opposite kinds of discipline, in schools; the one founded on the passion of fear, the other, on that of love. Every other variety is either a modification, or a mixture of these. It is generally supposed, that the influence of fear is the most certain and easy. That it is the most certain is rather a doubtful point ; but, if by easiness is meant that it costs but little thought to the teacher, there can be no doubt that it is sufficiently easy. It is both easier and quicker, to give a blow than a reason ; but one reason may secure obedience, better than a hundred blows. It

It may be generally observed, that children, who act only from a fear of punishment, acquire a slavish habit of feeling; and, aster having committed an offence, they will not hesitate to avail themselves of those unworthy expedients which low cunning can suggest, in order to escape detection, and its dreaded consequences.

But there is one point of view, in which the subject is seldom, if ever, considered, which is undoubtedly the most important of all, namely, its moral effect on the community. The children of one generation form the community of the next ; consequently, whatever general moral effect is produced on youth, may be correctly said to influence the whole community. amusements, repaired to the old spot, and again commenced their favorite play. But this the other boys would not allow. They all went to the road, and, as the recusants would listen to no remonstrance, the boys tumbled them into the snow, every time they came down the hill ; and, as even this failed to stop them, two of the inajority, at last, jumped on their sled, and broke it to pieces. A struggle was the consequence, in which the culprits had the worse. In the afternoon, complaints were entered, on both sides, which, after a patient hearing, I proposed should be disposed of in the same way as the question in the morning. Accordingly, having recapitulated what had been said and agreed on at that time, I requested all who thought it wrong to break the agreement to give up the sliding place, to hold up their hands. Every hand in school was raised, except those of the three infringers, on whose countenances the powerful effect of public opinion was in. stantly manifest. This is all right,' I observed ; but we have another question to decide. It was undoubtedly wrong for these boys to break their agreement; but was it right for any one to take the law into his own hands, and to use them ill, and break their sled. I wish you all calmly to think of this, and give your vote, whether it was wrong or not.' The decision now was unanimous : which at once put an end, both to the quarrel, and the sliding on the road.”

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Now, the effect of fear is limited to the teacher's presence, nay, even to his sight; for his eye is closely watched by the little mischief-makers. The moment his attention is occupied in one place, the mischief breaks out in another. Like an army in an enemy's country, he holds only the actual ground he stands upon. Has not such a course as this the effect of making us all more or less eye-servants ? Must not its influence be very pernicious on the practice of virtue, the performance of our daily duties to God, as well as to man? For it cannot be denied, that there are few, very few, indeed, who have an abiding sense of the presence of God. Compare such an influence as this, with that of love! In the one case, the heart asks, Who sees us ? in the other, Is this right ?* Is it not worth while, then, to give this system a fair trial ? But let it be, indeed, a fair trial. No halfway measures must be pursued. We must begin, by demanding, at once, perfect order. There must be no communication, under any pretence, between the pupils, during the periods allotted to study. The slightest approaches to disorder must be instantly noticed, and stopped. And we must not demand impossibilities. The periods of study must be short ; in no case, exceeding half an hour ; with very young children, a quarter ;

* Since writing the above, I have read a speech of Mr. Preston, United States Senator from South Carolina, at a political meeting in Philadelphia, in which he lavishes the most unbounded praise on Mr. Clay, for a sentiment, which, if education were on a proper footing; would be too common to attract notice.

“ I have heard him utter," said Mr. Preston, “ in his closet, sentiments, which, had they fallen from the lips of one of the ancients of Greece or Rome, would have been repeated with admiration to the present day. On one occasion," continued Mr. P. “ he did me the honor to send for and consult with me. After stating what he proposed, I suggested, whether there would be no danger in it, whether such a course would not injure his own prospects, as well as those of the Whig party, in general. His reply was, "I did not send for you to ask what might be the effect of the proposed movements on my prospects, but whether it was right; I had rather be right, than be President.' Such sentiments as these indicate the loftiness of the man, and the high purposes of his soul ; and they should call forth the admiration and confidence of the Nation. They point to him as the most worthy to wield her destinies.”

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