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gral calculus. 2. Trigonometry, plane and spherical, mensuration, surveying, navigation, and civil engineering. But when the student has arrived at an age which renders it probable that he will not have time for the whole course, a different arrangement should be adopted. After algebra and geometry, should follow plane trigonometry, and then such other practical subjects, as he may have a particular call or taste for.
The dead languages should be studied at the same time with the mathematics. The extent to which they should be pursued, should also depend on the time the student will probably be able to devote to them. It should be such as to allow of the acquisition of at least one living language.
The order, in which the living languages should be studied, should be, unless peculiar circumstances call for a different arrangement, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Portuguese.
Rhetoric and the philosophy of grammar should be attended to, at the commencement of the course.
All other English studies may be safely left to the care of the student himself, if his faculties have been drawn out and improved by a judicious course in the primary school. Where there is a good apparatus belonging to the school, however, lectures or reading from scientific works will be highly profitable, followed by strict questioning. The pupils should be encouraged to form an extensive botanical and mineralogical cabinet for the school. It is very desirable, that the teacher should advise his pupils, as to their course of private reading, in history, biography, metaphysics, political economy, politics, such other sciences as are not studied in school, the English classical writers, poetry, and a few of the best works of fiction.
One day in the week should be devoted to elocution and reading of compositions, which should be of a higher cast than those of the primary school, embracing criticisms on English literature.
A knowledge of ancient geography should be acquired, whilst perusing the classics, by the filling up of skeleton maps. A comparative view of ancient and modern geography may be formed, by writing the ancient names on these skeletons, with red ink, and the modern, with black. Every student should form such maps for himself. He should also make biographical tables, on the model of those of Priestley or Le Sage.
A little time should be allowed for drawing, especially when it has been commenced in the primary school. Short musical exercises should relieve the tedium of study, at intervals, during the day.
Recapitulation. In taking a retrospective view of our examination of the subject of intellectual education, may not the following be regarded as legitimate conclusions ?
I. That the true mode of improving intellectual education is, to begin at the foundation ; that, if the common school be elevated, the college must rise.
II. That man's chief concern on earth is EDUCATION; and that the business of schools and colleges is simply to prepare him to enter on his great course, with ease and effect.
III. That reading is the great key to knowledge ; that he, who really possesses it, has every species of knowledge at command ; but that, in order to render it effectual, the faculty of attention must be fully developed.
IV. That the full developement of the faculties of observation, reflection, reason, judgment, memory, imagination, and taste, is necessary to the enjoyment of all the advantages of the great school OF NATURE.
V. That the mathematics and classical studies are both necessary, to the proper developement of these faculties.
VI. That the main objects of TEACHERS' SEMINARIES should be, teaching to read properly ; the theory and practice of the Art of Teaching; the use of the Blackboard ; the best manner of training youth in habits of Virtue; and a mode of Discipline founded on correct principles.
VII. That the expense of these seminaries would be a mere trifle to any State ; and that, if the common schools were placed on a proper footing, they would be wanted but for a few years.
VIII. That the indispensable literary qualifications of a teacher of the primary school are reading, orthography, writing, arithmetic, geography, and the principles of composition ; but that, as many other requisites are desirable, and will soon become indispensable, it is the duty of every teacher, steadily to extend and improve her knowledge.
IX. That no one, less qualified than the members of the senior class of college ought ever to be thought of as a teacher of the central school ; and that we ought, as soon as possible, to look for much higher qualifications.
X. That both grades of teachers should clearly understand the true object of education ; that they should be patterns of neatness and of order ; possess uniformity of temper, decision and firmness, patience and perseverance ; be pleasant, affectionate, and disposed to sympathize with children; of an unimpeachable moral character ; and, to sum up the whole in one qualification, lovers and steadfast followers of TRUTH.
XI. That, in the selection of a teacher, wages should form but a secondary consideration ; but that the inquiry into the moral character, and other qualifications, can never be too strict.
XII. That town and county meetings of teachers are indispensable, towards the regular: advance of improvement in education.
XIII. That district libraries should contain a good selection of the best school-books, as well as books for circulation; and that, in order to extend the usefulness of such libraries, a regular system of mutual exchange should be adopted.
XIV. That, in order to produce habits of attention, children must constantly, not occasionally, give an account of their reading, in school, in their own words.
XV. That, in order to the attainment of orthography, children must acquire a habit of observing the form of words, while reading.
XVI. That giving the a the long, in place of the obscure, sound, and pronouncing the h where it ought to be silent, lead to important errors of emphasis, and, consequently, of sense ; and that the want of a complete cessation of sound after points, and of sufficient variety of force and rapidity of utterance, renders reading tame and heavy, and thereby destroys its utility.
XVII. That the exercise of minutely and accurately describing pictures, gives to children a command of language, and improves their powers of observation.
XVIII. That the reading of newspapers, in schools, accompanied by suitable explanations, by the teacher, would convey much useful and practical information.
XIX. That writing and drawing should be commenced simultaneously with reading.
XX. That, in writing, legibility is a beauty of the first order, and that as much should be brought within the compass of the eye as distinctness will allow.
XXI. That, in the impressions made on the mind, by the organ of sight, the imagination plays an important part, and that to distinguish between the impressions of imagination and reality is the chief difficulty in drawing from Nature.
XXII. That drawing disciplines the eye and hand, and improves the powers of observation, memory,
invention, and taste ; that, by providing interesting and quiet occupation for children, it assists in preserving good discipline in families ; and that it is indispensable in many professions and trades, and highly useful in others.
XXIII. That it is of the first importance in a free country, that elocution and composition should be universally cultivated, and that this can never be effectually done, unless commenced in early youth.
XXIV. That mental arithmetic forms an admirable introduction to written arithmetic; and that the latter should be based on principles, not on mechanical rules.
XXV. That the chief advantage of mental arithmetic is the intellectual discipline it affords, to which the knowledge of the science is but of secondary importance.
XXVI. That, by the aid of abbreviations, and by proper arrangement of the subject, written arithmetic may be acquired by young children, in a very short time.
XXVII. That geography should be principally taught, by filling up skeleton maps.
XXVIII. That botany should be studied in the primary school, and that a herbarium and a folium should be formed by the pupils.
XXIX. That vocal music is of great importance, and can easily be made a branch in our primary schools.
XXX. That the mathematics, the dead languages, (followed by the living languages,) rhetoric, and the philosophy of grammar, should be studied, simultaneously, in the central school.
XXXI. That the practice of composition and elocution should be continued and extended in the central school ; and that a comparative view of ancient and modern geography should be acquired, while reading the classics, by filling up skeleton maps, with the ancient and modern names in ink of different colors.
“ Can the Ethiopian change his skin? or the leopard his spots ? Then may ye also, do good, who have been accustomed to do evil.”
Jer. xiïi. 23.
« Train up a child in the way he should go, and, when he is old, he will not depart from it.”—Prov. xxii. 6.
We have already had occasion [Part I. Chapter VI.] to notice and lament the total want of moral education, in our primary schools ; a deficiency which some have attempted to justify, from the great variety of religious faith and modes of worship existing in the community, and the danger of converting the school into an engine