parisons. The one gathers all the flowers, the other, all the nettles, in his path. The one realizes all the pleasure of the present good, the other converts it into pain, by pining after something better, which is only better because it is not present, and which, if it were present, would not be enjoyed.” The celebrated Boz observes, that “Men who look on Nature and their fellow-men, and cry that all is dark and gloomy, are in the right ; but the sombre colors are reflected from their own jaundiced eyes and hearts. The real hues are delicate, and require a clearer vision.” There is another class of these grumblers, who make themselves and all around them wretched, because they conceive that gloom renders them interesting. All such ought to be laughed out of their folly, as soon as it appears. The little pupils should be encouraged, whenever they differ in opinion from any sentiment advanced, to give the reasons for their dissent, with politeness, but with perfect freedom. It is not thought advisable, however, to recommend the institution of debates, with the previous appointment of individuals to different sides. Such exercises are apt to degenerate into a struggle for victory, rather than a search for truth. Our youth should be educated for judges, not for advocates. They ought distinctly to understand, that almost every sentiment and opinion has, at least, two sides from which it inay be viewed ; that the one is generally good, till the other has been heard ; and that it is alike their duty and interest, to examine subjects for themselves in every point of view. What has as yet been advanced, on this subject, may be thought, perhaps, chiefly to relate to elocution; but the fact is, that nearly all of it applies equally to composition. What has been spoken may also be written ; and there will be little or no difficulty, if we commence at the proper time and place. Nearly all the difficulties in education arise from commencing in the middle, or at the wrong end. As soon, then, as the child can form and join his letters, let him commence the practice of composition, and follow it up steadily as long as he remains in school. Few are aware how improvable is the faculty of expressing thoughts upon paper. The gigantic increase of the muscles in a blacksmith's arm, from his wielding the hammer so frequently ; the proverbial strength of the memory, by exercise ; or the miraculous sleight which the juggler acquires, by practice, with his cup and balls ; is not more certain, than that he, who daily habituates himself to writing down his ideas with what ease, accuracy, and elegance, he can, will find bis improvement advance, with hardly any assignable limit. Nor will his style, only, improve. It is a hackneyed truth, that, “ in learning to write with accuracy and precision, we learn to think with accuracy and precision. Besides this, the store of thought is, in a twofold way, enlarged. By the action of the mind, in turning over, analyzing, and comparing, its ideas, they are incalculably multiplied. And the researches, prompted by the desire to write understandingly upon each subject, are constantly widening and deepening the bounds of knowledge. Thus, whether a person wishes to enrich and invigorate his own mind, or to act with power on the minds of others, we say to him, Write! Elocution and composition have an intimate connexion and mutual bearing on each other. It has been said, that“ reading makes a full man ; speaking, a ready man; and writing, an exact man. " All are necessary to constitute the well-educated man. Before concluding this subject, it should be mentioned, that the inditing of letters to parents, teachers, brothers and sisters, and companions, should be added to the numerous topics for composition already mentioned. CHAPTER VIII. INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION, CONTINUED. Arithmetic. appears here. The error, that has been so repeatedly noticed, again The study is commenced too late. Very young children can readily understand, not only concrete, but abstract, numbers. Indeed, it will be found, that, within certain limits, the effort is much less in young than in older children ; that is, of three boys of equal capacity, who know little or nothing of numbers, one of six, the others of eight and ten, years of age, their progress will be more nearly inversely, than directly, as their respective ages. In our improved schools, then, let mental arithmetic be commenced simultaneously with reading, which last, indeed, is an object of much more difficult attainment than the first. Such a For our purpose, Mental Arithmetic. For beginners, a numeral frame should be procured, but of a different kind from the one manufactured for schools in Boston. This latter is a frame with twelve wires passing across, on each of which are twelve balls, painted, alternately, of two different colors frame, as it does not correspond with our decimal system of arithmetic, can be but of little use. an old slate frame will answer very well. The vertical sides should be pierced for eleven wires, ten of which should be at equal distances, the eleventh further apart, say double the distance. On each wire should be placed ten beads, half of one color and half of another,--say blue and yellow,-arranged as follows: three yellow, two blue, two yellow, three blue. Thus we shall have one hundred beads, on ten wires, to represent units, and ten, on the eleventh, to represent hundreds ; and so arranged, by twos, threes, fives, and tens, that any number, not exceeding one thousand, can be read off as easily as by the use of ciphers. Let us now take a class, who cannot count. The teacher, holding the frame so that the beads are all on one side, and passing one of those on the upper wire across to the opposite side, says, " There is one bead. Repeat, after me, one bead ; (passing another across,) two beads;" &c., till all the ten are passed across, and named. Then repeat the operation, omiiting the word bead, till all can readily count from one to ten. This is enough for the first lesson. The second lesson should be a repetition of the first, with this addition : When the three yellow beads are passed across, say, “Now, try to recollect three." Then pass three across on another wire, and ask, how many there are. If they do not know, count the first three again, and repeat, on different wires, till they know three, at a glance. In like manner, make them familiar with four, five, six, seven ; and for eight, nine, ten, direct their attention to the other side, as eight on one side may be known by two on the other ; nine, by one, and ten, by none. This may probably be too much for the second lesson. The teacher must take care not to fatigue the little pupils, by too long exertion. As soon as the class has become familiar with the first ten numbers, and able to name them on the frame, at a glance, the difficulty is pretty much over ; as the others are chiefly a repetition of the first ten. In teaching them we should, at first, call them by their original names, before we introduce the class to their common, or contracted names, as this will explain the system of numbers, which will tend to simplify every part of arithmetic. The class, then, should be told, that ten has three different names ; namely, 1. One ten, standing by itself, is called, ten. 2. One ten, joined to another number, teen. 3. More than one ten, ty. Applying this to the frame, pass the ten beads on the first wire across, and then say, - There is ten.” Now, one bead across from the second wire, 66 There is oneteen ; another will make twoteen ; three, threeteen ; four, fourteen;" &c., to nineteen ; and, passing the last one across, “Now we have twoty.” Then, by passing the beads of the third wire singly across, we shall have, twotyone, twoty-two, &c., to threety; and, continuing the operation, fourty, fivety, sixty, &c., to ninety-nine, the last bead gives ienty, or a hundred. We have seen classes, who have gone, at once, from ten to one hundred ; and, at the next lesson, could name any number required, on the frame, not exceeding one hundred ; and, by telling them that each bead on the eleventh wire stood for one hundred, their knowledge extended to one thousand. When they have become familiar with the nomenclature, which will be in three or four lessons, the abbreviations, which are few and simple, may be explained. The most difficult are the two first, oneteen, twoteen, which are changed to eleven, twelve ; the others are very simple, namely, threeteen and threety are shortened to thirteen and thirty; fiveteen and fivety, to fifteen and fifty ; lastly, twoty is twenty ; and fourty is forty. This explanation is principally intended for those who know nothing of arithmetic. But it would be profitable for the whole school to go over the frame once or twice, as there are few who have clear notions of the meaning of ty and teen. Our little pupils, having thus acquired the nomenclature of numbers, the fundamental processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, may now be commenced. The first two should be taught simultaneously on the frame : thus, passing two beads and two beads, the class will see they make four ; and, if two be taken from four, two will remain. If this be practised a very few minutes every day, in a week or two the class will add or subtract, instantly, any two numbers, pot exceeding one thousand. Multiplication and division should also proceed simultaneously. Thus, taking eight beads, ask, how many twos it contains ; and, if one of the class separate them on the wire into twos, all will see there are four; consequently, four twos make eight, and eight contains four twos. It will not be necessary to go further than the fifth line in multiplication and division; as the higher numbers will be more readily taught from Colburn's First Lessons, of which anon. The frame need now be no longer used as a regular exercise, but should always be convenient to the teacher's desk ; as, if properly used, it will be of much advantage to the class. For very small children, Fowle's · Mental Arithmetic' should precede Colburn's · Lessons ;' but those of seven or eight years of age may pass, at once, into Colburn. Of these books, there should be only one copy in school. Any intelligent teacher can use them, even though unpractised in mental arithmetic. When this is the case, . |