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out, tend to the developement of all the valuable faculties of the human mind. The same may be said of composition, perhaps, in a still greater degree. The mathematics, including arithmetic, both mental and written, when taught on true principles, and divested of all mechanical rules and unnecessary tables, will coöperate to the same valuable end. And, finally, the study of the learned languages will tend to fill up all the little vacancies or omissions of the former studies.

Thus most, or all, of the studies in both grades of schools, if properly pursued, will regularly and constantly tend to produce the desired effect.

Much difference of opinion exists on the comparative value of the mathematics and classical studies, as means for disciplining the mind. The truth seems to be, that neither are complete means for that purpose. The mathematics, independent of their value as indispensable steps towards the attainment of the exact sciences, are invaluable aids for developing the faculties of attention, reflection, and reason. They deal, however, exclusively with certainties. And, as the most important concerns of our life, in which our judgment is required, are probabilities only, it follows, that we must look elsewhere for means of developing some of our most valuable faculties. Here, the classics, or study of the dead languages, opportunely steps in to our assistance, and aids in bringing out our judgment, memory, imagination, and taste. If, then, we would have pupils completely fitted to enter the great College of Nature, neither of these important branches must be neglected. And, if both are properly and thoroughly taught, they will be fully prepared to enter on that grand course of study, which, if it is ever destined to close, will close but with life.

CHAPTER VI.

INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION, CONTINUED.

Teachers' Seminaries.

The great object of these seminaries should be, to furnish instruction, such as is not only necessary to prepare teachers for the important and complicated duties of their profession, but such, also, as is not elsewhere to be procured. For, in truth, there would be but small advantages derived from the establishỉnent of an institution of this sort, the whole, or even the greater part, of whose attention should be devoted to teaching the mathematics, the sciences, and the dead and living languages. This species of knowledge can be readily obtained in most of our established academies and colleges. But what is really wanted is, an institution where teachers shall learn to read properly, a point in which most of them are sadly deficient; where they shall acquire the Art of Teaching ; the best and easiest manner of unfolding and cultivating the various faculties of the human mind; of directing the inquirer in his search after truth ; and of teaching him the arts of observation, classification, and investigation. In such a school, the pupils should be alternately teachers and scholars ; that is to say, they should be initiated into the practice, as well as into the theory, of the art of teaching. They should be required, by turns, to lecture to each other, on all the subjects brought under the notice of the school; and to visit the neighboring district schools, for the purpose of trying their qualifications as teachers under the

eye

of their instructer; or regular periods may be appointed for receiving classes from the neighboring schools, with that view. Each pupil should also be required to take turns in lecturing from the blackboard, of the great value of which but few of the teachers seem, as yet, to have an adequate idea, or else are ignorant of the mode of bringing it into practical use. And, finally, the subject of morals and discipline should be fully discussed, and every member of the school daily questioned on these subjects, until they have become perfectly farniliar.

How should these seminaries be supported ? As the object is not the individual advantage of the teacher, but the general good, of course, the expense should be borne by the public. But, in fact, the necessary expense would be a mere trifle, should the system of central schools be carried extensively into operation. For, as it is chiefly, if not exclusively, the primary schools that require the aid of these teachers' seminaries, and as these schools would be supplied by permanent teachers, a new race of well-educated youth would be ready to take their place, before the teachers who had been educated at the seminary had left the stage. In fact, in a very few years after such institutions had been in operation, every district school would present a model, from which those, who wished to devote themselves to teaching, might learn the true art, in a very short time. Teachers' seminaries, then, are only wanted temporarily, if other matters are properly arranged.

With respect to their number, let us take Massachusetts as an example. In this State, three would be abundantly sufficient. One might be located at Boston, another at Worcester, a third at Northampton. Or, if the Legislature is incredulous as to their effects, and not willing to establish three, a trial might be made by one at Boston, to be held at Worcester and Northampton the second and third years.

The school ought to be free to all who should subscribe to its regulations, and provide themselves with suitable books, which need not exceed two or three. The total expense to the State might probably be about fifteen hundred or two thousand dollars per annum, for

If the situation of Principal to such an institution were conferred on a person of suitable talents, and sufficient enthusiasm for the cause, the benefit to the State would be incalculable. A similar arrangement might be adopted by every other State, that took suffi

six years.

cient interest in the improvement of universal education. If this cheap and practicable mode of diffusing information should be generally adopted,--and it only waits for some public-spirited legislature to take the lead, the schools throughout the land would be revolutionized, in the course of a very

few
years.

And our colleges must follow suit. For they could not exist, without advancing at least, pari passu, with the schools.

Qualification of Teachers. The indispensable literary qualifications of a teacher of the primary school are, reading, orthography, writing, arithmetic, the principles of composition, and geography. But it is very desirable, that she should possess a knowledge of book-keeping and vocal music, in order that she may teach them ; of moral and intellectual philosophy, the philosophy of grammar, history, algebra, and geometry ; as, though not intended to be studied in the primary school, they are necessary for her own intellectual improvement, and to enable her to teach, with effect, the branches that are studied there. If, then, a young woman possess a thorough knowledge of the first six mentioned branches, she may consider herself qualified to commence a school.

But, as these observations apply only to the present state of education; as, in a few years hence, it is probable, that no one will even propose to assume the profession, without much higher qualifications ; such primary teacher ought, without delay, to set about the acquisition of all the branches mentioned. Should she be really qualified by Nature for teaching, she will hardly find any difficulty in these studies, which she cannot conquer alone. At all events, if insuperable difficulties should occur, there are few situations where she will not be able to find willing assistance to overcome them.

Where the central-school system has not gone into operation, the literary qualifications of the teacher should considerably exceed what has here been stated.

The literary qualifications of a teacher of the central school ought to be,

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1. The Mathematics : viz. their general principles: algebra, geometry, conic sections, and fluxions ; and their application : plane and spherical trigonometry, mensuration, navigation, surveying, and civil engineering.

2. The Classics : or a knowledge of the dead languages.

3. The Modern Languages: French, Spanish, Italian, and German.

4. Grammar, Rhetoric, and Composition.

5. Natural History : viz. the mineral kingdom, mineralogy, geology, and meteorology ; the vegetable kingdom, botany ; the animal kingdom, zoology, ornithology, entomology, ichthyology, and conchology.

6. Chemistry and Natural Philosophy.

7. History, Mental and Moral Philosophy, Political Economy, Physiology, and Comparative Anatomy.

8. Drawing, and Vocal Music.

Teachers with such extensive qualifications could not now be procured ; but none less qualified than the members of the senior classes of the colleges ought to be thought of. If the central-school system, however, should go extensively into operation, the colleges would be forced to enlarge their course of study, as the freshman class from the central school would be nearly equal to the present graduates ; and so, every year, we should have better teachers. Thus, the general adoption of this system would no less advance the education of professional men, than that of the great body of the people. This is the true method of improving education. Begin at the foundation, and the whole superstructure ascends. Elevate the common school, and the colleges must rise.

With respect to intellectual and moral qualifications, both grades of schools demand similar requisites.

1. The teacher should understand the object of education. He should no longer contract its usefulness to the ignoble object of enabling men to conduct the mere business of life. He should have a strong and clear perception of the truth, that the object of school education is not even principally to acquire knowledge, but to form habits of mental industry, to train the mind to find pleas

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