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rattle snakes were accustomed to leave vigour or activity, in that stupor when it their dens-the state of the reptile was lit- is never known to emit any odour whattle removed from absolute torpidity, and I He had procured in Jersey, eight am more inclined to believe it from the in- rattle snakes, which be had shut up in a difference shown by the bird, which from box as soon as dug out of the earth, and the never failing power of instinct, might forwarded to Philadelphia. Three weeks at once perceive the want of ability in its after, the box was opened and the snakes enemy to molest or injure it. If Dr. Bar- taken out, when no odour whatever was ton's opinion was accurate—" That at the perceived, and in my opinion, for this season alone, when birds were employed plain reason, that being dug out of the in hatching their eggs, or nourishing their ground when torpid, no disposition to young, the uneasiness observed in them gratify appetite existed in them, -that on the approach of the snake was percep- they were too languid and insensible to be tible, and that their cries and agitation, susceptible of anger, and that the power was occasioned by a desire to defend and was denied them of emitting the effluvium, protect them," I should be doubtful of wbich at a more advanced season, and in the accuracy of my own opinions, and possession of health and vigour, had unjoin in the belief, that their destruction doubtedly been theirs. The opinion of was frequently occasioned by their ex- Monsieur Bosc, differs widely from that crting themselves beyond discretion, and of Dr. Barton: “Nature," says he, “while persisting in their attacks till they be- she refused to the rattle snake activity, came the victims of parental anxiety; to warn man of his danger, has given to but this is by no means the case, and par- the reptile a pestilential effluvium and ticular inquiry justifies me in saying~ rattles.” But this effluvium, according to " that till the snake makes his retreat his ideas, arises from the putridity of the to his den, for the winter season, the pow- food contained in the stomach of the reptile, er is completely his, of securing his prey, while subject to the operation of digestion. and producing all the effects on the ani- Now, if this position be true, the snake, mal destroyed, which are perceptible at while gorged with food, would prevent an earlier season.” My friend, capt. Wm. the approach of all other animals by Cattel, at a late period, saw a rabbit so warning them of their danger, for, indecompletely bewildered by the power of pendent of his will, the pestiferous odour the effluvium emanating from a large would be emitted, and when the stomach snake which was about to devour it, that is empty it would emit no odour whatever; after driving the reptile off, he was com- whereas, I believe the fact to be diametripelled repeatedly to strike it smartly with cally opposite—that the snake, when his whip before it sufficiently recovered gorged with food, is quiescent, altogether the use of its faculties to move away.-- disinclined to exertion, and in no instance Capt. Fuller and Mr. Miles, very lately, prone unnecessarily to waste the effluvium also took up from before a rattle snake, on which it depends for support; but, on a large rabbit, that was too much bewil. the other hand, when its stomach is empdered to show the smallest desire to es ty, impelled by hunger to seek for food, cape. Monsieur Beauvois denies the ex- that it freely emits the effluvium, which istence of the effluvium, and declares, in all prevents the escape of the animal it wishes the experiments made by Mr. Peale of to devour, and by stupifying, causes it to Philadelphia, and himself, neither the one become an easy sacrifice to its rapacious nor the other could ever perceive that appetite. any was emitted by the snake subjected I am sensible, sir, that you would have to their observations. He also put a bird blamed me, bad I feigned a conviction of into a cage with a rattle snake, but error which I did not feel. The argufound that the reptile remained perfectly ments which I now offer in support of my tranquil and the bird altogather at ease; pristine opinions, may prove little satisfacnor did the air appear to it, to judge from tory to you, but will, I hope, have suffiits behaviour, different from that which is cient plausibility to excuse me for subfound in an ordinary close cage ;-but, as jecting them to your consideration. With in the case mentioned by Dr. Barton, the grateful recollection of your politeness, spake had been dug from the ground in a I remain, torpid state, and still remained without
A Description of the Hot Springs, near because it relates to a curiosity of the
the river Washitaw, and of the Physi- first magnitude, but because it is concal Geography of the adjacent country; nected also with a profession which is in a Communication from Major S. 8. greatly indebted to yourself, for its reLong, of the U. S. corps of Engineers, spectability and advancement in this counto the hon. Samuel L. Mitchill, dated try. The subject alluded to, is the Hot St. Louis, Missouri, February 23, 1818. Springs of the Washitaw, which I visited (Read before the Lyceum of Natural on the first day of January last, on my
History at New-York, 20th April,1818.) return from Red river. Together with an MY DEAR SIR,
unvarnished description of the springs, I I take the liberty of communicating herewith present you a rude sketch of the upon a .subject which you will no doubt adjacent country, which will enable you consider somewhat interesting, not only to form some idea of their locality.
HOT SPRINGS OF THE WASHITAW,
These remarkable springs are situated water running in it, is, at this time, (Jan. in N. lat. 34° 14' 7", upon a small creek 1,) about one thousand gallons per minute. of the Washitaw, bearing their namne, and Hot Spring hill, or mountain, (as it is uniting with that river at the distance of more frequently called,) is situated on the 12 or 14 miles from the springs. The east side of the creek, and is about 550 country in which they are situated is ex- feet high. The extent of its base along tremely hilly and broken, the highlands the creek is about six hundred yards. being divided into numerous ridges and The hill is of a conical form, and has a knobs by creeks, runs, &c. The rocky base not exceeding 1 1-2 miles in diameformations, in this neighbourhood, are both ter. It is completely insulated from the various and interesting, exhibiting various other hills by which it is environed, by orders of concretion, from the softest state creeks, brooks, and ravines. Directly to the hardest flint. On the Washitaw, north of it, on the same side of the creek, slate of an excellent quality for tiling is is another hill somewhat higher, separated found in abundance. Near the springs I from the former by a small brook. On observed several varieties of this forma- the west side of the creek, directly oppotion, one of which appeared well adapted site to Spring hill, is a third, considerably for writing slates, and a second, sufficient. higher than either of the last mentioned, ly hard and fissile for tiles. On Hot Spring and situated a little distance from the creek, and several other water courses in creek, leaving an area of considerable its vicinity, are extensive quarries of stone, extent between its base and the creek, resembling, in colour and texture, the upon which cabins are built for the acTurkey oil stone, which, by numerous ex- commodation of those who visit tbe periments, has been proved equally as springs. useful in sharpening tools, &c. On the There are said to be sixty different hills, tiff and other mineral sines abound. springs or fountains of bot water, occupyThe stones in many places are strongly ing a distance of about four hundred yards impregnated with iron, and rich ore of along the east side of the creek. On the this metal is frequently to be met with. west side there is butone, situated immediUpon the hill from which the Ilot Springs ately upon the shore, and discharging but issue, the rocky formations are different in a moderate quantity of water; wbile on the many respects, from any I have observed other side, they are variously situated, upon the other hills. By the operation of some of them near the edge of the creek, heat, as also of the water which holds in upon the same level, and others on differsolution a large portion of the carbonate ent parts of the declivity, elevated from of lime, no where else to be seen upon the 10 to 150 feet above the water level, and surface of the ground, various changes discharging from one to fifteen or twenty have been wrought upon them. In some gallops each, per minute. Immediately instances the works are so incrusted with in the vicinity of some of the hot springs, calcario::s concretions, that it is difficult are fountains of cold water, in some into ascertain their original character with- stances, gushing out of the ground within out a minute examination. In others, a very few feet of the Hot Spring. pebbles and stones of various forms and There have been 14 or 15 rude cabins complexions, are so strongly cemented constructed along the creek, by persons together with iron and calx eombined, as who resort hither, occasionally, for the to constitute large masses of compact and benefit of the springs. They are situated solid stone. The rocks and stones gene- mostly on the west side, and are calcula. rally upon the hills, are extremely ragged ted merely for a summer residence, very and favillous, vast bodies of them, in many few of them having chimneys. At preinstances, liaving the appearance of being sent none of them are occupied, excest composed entirely of the calcarious mat- one, in which a family took a temporary ter once held in solution by the hot water residence a few days since. There are of the springs. In regard to the natural no settlements yet made nearer than the growth, I observed nothing peculiar to the Washitaw, where there are three at the will whence the springs flow, that was distance of about eight miles from the not common also to the other neighbour- springs. From these settlements, resiing heights. The high lands generally, dents at the springs obtain provisions by in this quarter, are covered with forests paying a high price ; but, to the credit of yellow or pitch pinc, and support an and generosity of the settlers, it may be exuberant growth of vines, furze, bram- said, that they are equally as ready to ble, &c.
supply the poor, as the rich, although The course of the creek in passing the they run the risk of never receiving say, springs, is nearly south. The quantity of ment for their produce. There have been
instances where they have refused to take Temperature of spring No. 17, upperdouble their selling price for their corn, most on the creek, and has a sweat house but have chosen rather to divide it be- and bath, 126 deg. probable discharge tween the poor and rich, not according per minute, 5 gallons. to their ability to pay, but in proportion Temperature of springs Nos. 18, 19, to the necessities of the purchasers, and 20, 21, and 22, all rising near together on the quantity of provisions absolutely re- a level area, 126, 128, 130, 136, and 140, quired for their subsistence.
deg. probable discharge per minute, 9 galDuring my delay at the springs, I made 'lons. the following observations relative to their The last mentioned cluster is situated respective temperatures, &c. commen- upon a prominent part of the hill, elevacing in the creek immediately below the ted at least one hundred feet above the springs, and passing up along its eastern level of the creek. In the same area are shore as far as they extend. The num- several others,—and what is particularly bers annexed to the springs are merely remarkable, several springs of cold waaccidental, indicating the order in which ter rise in the same plat, one of them I examined them.
within a very few feet of the hottest spring: Temperature of the creek below the In some of these springs, I observed bub. springs, 64 deg. Fahrenheit, probable dis-. bles rising in rapid succession, but could charge 1100 gallons.
not discover any remarkable scent emitTemperature of spring No. 1, being ted from them. the lowermost on the creek, 122 deg. Temperature of the creck immediately probable discharge per minute, 4 gallons. above the springs, 46 deg. probable dis
Temperature of spring No. 2, a few charge per minute, 1000 gallons. feet from No. 1, 104 deg. probable dis- Besides the springs enumerated above, charge per minute, 1 gallon.
there are many others situated on the Temperature of spring No. 3, about
same side of the hill, at different eleva25 yards above the last, 126 deg. proba- tions above the water level. ble discharge per minute, 2 gallons.
The heat of the water in the summer 'Temperature of spring No. 4, after season, is said to be much greater than at upiting with a spring of cold water, 124 deg. present, and the discharge somewhat less. probable discharge per minute, 2 gallons. The water is then hot enough to draw tea
Temperature of springs Nos. 5, 6, and or coffee, cook eggs, and even meat. In 7, rising very near each other, the hottest, the hottest of the springs, I observed most elevated, 126, 94, and 92 deg. pro- bushes growing, as also an abundance of bable discharge per minute, 8 gallons. beautiful moss of a deep green colour,
Temperature of spring No. 8, eleva, and of a vegetating appearance ;-aud tion 50 feet, after mingling with a cold what is still more wonderful, a kind of spring, 128 deg. probable discharge per water insect, something longer than the minute, 10 gallons.
wood louse, but resembling it in shape, Temperature of spring No. 9, elevated lives and sports in the heated element. 60 feet above the water level, 132 deg. There is a spring of cold water about probable discharge per minute,
2 gallons. 3 miles from the hot springs, in a northTemperature of spring No. 10, eleva- easterly direction, which has obtained ted 40 feet, bushes growing in the waters some notoriety from the circumstance of edge, 151 deg. probable discharge per its having occasioned the death of a man minute, 5 gallons.
who had heated himself in pursuing 3 Temperature of spring No. 11, issuing bear, and drank too freely of its water, near the margin of the creek, elevated 3 and has, therefore, obtained the name of feet, 148 deg. probable discharge per the Poison Spring. From the descripminute, 14 gallons.
tion given me of this spring, i am inclined Temperature of spring No. 12, 20 to think it a chalybeate, pretty strongly yards from the last, baving a sweat house impregnated, and containing, possibly, upon it, 132 deg. probable discharge per some arsenic. Its waters deposit an abunminute, 20 gallons.
dance of ocreous earth, adhering to the Temperature of springs Nos. 13, 14, stones in the bottom and sides of the chanand 15, all excavations for baths, situated nel through which they flow. just above No. 12; 124, 119, 108 deg. Believe me, dear Sir, with sincere rem probable discharge per minute, 6 gallons. gard, your most obliged, humble servant, Temperature of spring No. 16, an ex
S. H. LONG. cavation also, near the last, 122 deg. pro- Hon. S. L. Mitchill. bable discharge per minute, 2 gallons.
ART. 2. The Corsair. A Melo-Drama, in four Acts, collected and arranged for
the Stage, from Lord Byron's Poem. By EDWIN C. HOLLAND, Esq. of Charleston,
truly set forth in the title page. It bat ensues—the Turks are routed, and is nothing more than an attempt to dra- Seyd betakes himself to flight. The Cor. matize lord Byron's poem of the Corsair, sairs now proceed to fire the town. Conpreserving almost literally the language rad perceives that the flames have envelof his lordship, and strictly adhering to oped the Haram. He rushes to the rescue his plot. The poetry of the original has, of its inhabitants, and bears out, in his arms, however, suffered much, in the soldering the favourite queen Gulnare. In the mear of it into a new frame,-and though it time Seyd has rallied his troops, and returns was little indebted to its rhymes for its ef- to the attack. The crews of Conrad are fect, it loses much of its force and dignity, overpowered by numbers ; and he remains in its present denudation into blank verse. wounded in the hands of the conquerors. Mr. Holland, in a very pretty preface, Seyd dooms him to impalement, but spares has avowed his unbounded admiration of him till he is sufficiently recovered to feel lord Byron's genius, and particularly as the punishment to which he is sentenced. it is displayed in the poem which he has Gulnare, influenced by sentiments of gratiendeavoured to adapt to the stage. We tude, which had ripened into love, visits hardly know how to reconcile the kin- Conrad in his prison, and soothes him with dred glow of enthusiasm, which seems to hope. She essays to persuade Seyd to have animated Mr. H. in his undertaking, ransom him, by appealing to his avarice. with the humble and servile transcriptions He peremptorily refuses to listen to the which constitute his greatest merit. proposition, and intimates his suspicions
The story of the Corsair is familiar to of the motives which prompted her sugmost of our readers-still it may not be gestion,-he even utters a menace against superfluous succinctly to recount it. Con- her life. The result of this fruitless enrad, the Corsair, was the chief of a band deavour to save the life of Conrad by hor of pirates, in possession of one of the powers of persuasion, decides Gulnare as Egean Isles. He had been driven by the to the course she is to pursue. At midunrelenting persecution of the world to night, by virtue of the signet ring of the the desperate resort of waging indiscri- Pacha, she again enters the dungeon of minate warfare with his species. But still, Conrad. She holds in one hand a lamp his heart was not wholly dipped in the in the other a poinard. She prompts him Stygian flood ;-he had one vulnerable to his revenge and to her vindication. point,--and there love shad infixed his Conrad refuses to murder his enemy in shaft. He loved Medora-she was almost his sleep—but no consideration can withthe only being that he did not hate. Me- hold Gulnare from the execution of her dora was his wife, and loved him, in re- purpose. She perpetrates the deed herself. turn, with a tenderness of which our sex The guard is bribed. Conrad is hurried is incapable. The poem opens with the from his cell, and embarks with Gulnare on arrival of a bark, which brings secret in- board a xebec. In a little wbile a vessel of formation to Conrad. On the instant, he Conrad's encounters them. It contains his orders his fleet to be equipped, and sets faithful followers hastening to avenge him. sail for the neighbouring continent. He They hail their chief with joyful acclamaenters the bay of Coron unobserved. It tions; and when they learn the mode of was a night of revelling among the Turks, his deliverance, are ready to prostrate preludatory to their meditated attack on themselves before Gulnare. Towards her, the strong hold of the pirates. Conrad Conrad had hitherto observed a sullen sidisguises himself-lands--and is intro- lence. He felt a horror at the recollecduced, as a dervise, escaped from the tion of her crime. But when he saw her enemy, into the banqueting room of the relapsed again into the woman-when he Pacha Seyd. Whilst in conference with saw that in having achieved bis deliverthe Pacha, his comrades fire the Turkish ance all her wishes were accomplished, gallies. The flash of the sudden confla- and that she had again resigned herself to gration arouses the suspicions of the that gentle and suffering mood, from which Turk, who proclaims the dervise a trai- nothing but the implacability of a tyrant tor and a spy. At this critical moment, had excited her-he saw the proper light Conrad throws of his disguise, unsheaths in which to estimate her conduct, and his sabre, and gives a blast upon his bugle. folded her to his bosom with all the fervor