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are almost as certain as those deduced from human bones have been found. “Hence rational principles, especially if established it clearly appears that no argument for apon careful and repeated observation. the antiquity of the human race can be Hence, any one who observes merely the founded upon these fossil bones, or upon the print of a cloven hoof, may conclude that it has been left by a ruminant animal, and more or less considerable collections of regard the conclusion as equally certain rocks, or earthly materials by which they with any other in physics or in morals. are covered.” All these changes which Consequently, this single foot-mark clearly have taken place on the surface of the indicates to the observer the forms of the globe, must have been anterior to the forteeth, of the jaws, of the vertebræ, of all mation of human beings, and consequently the leg-bones, thighs, shoulders, and of the the establishment of our existing societies trunk of the body of the animal which left could not have been very ancient, being the mark. It is much surer than all the less than five thousand years. For proofs marks of Zadig. Observation alone, inde- of this our readers must consult the 32d pendent entirely of general principles of section of our author, containing the traphilosophy, is sufficient to show that there certainly are secret reasons for all these re
ditionary accounts of a great catastrophe lations of which I have been speaking."
and subsequent renewal of human society. By a strict adherence to these rules
“I am of opinion, then,” says Cuvier in Cuvier has ascertained and classified the conclusion, “ with M. Deluc and M. Do.
lomieu,—That, if there is any circumstance fossil remains of 78 different quadrupeds, thoroughly established in geology, it is, that forty-nine of which are species heretofore the crust of our globe has been subjected entirely unknown to naturalists. They to a great and sudden revolution, the epoch are not found among living animals, and of which cannot be dated much farther consequently belong to extinct species. back than five or six thousand years ago; For proofs of these we must refer to Cu- that this revolution had buried at the counvier's great work on fossil organic remains, tries which were before inhabited by men, or to the second part of the publication and by the other animals that are now best before us wherein professor Jameson gives known; that the same revolution had laid an account of Cuvier's geological disco- dry the bed of the last ocean, which now veries. Among the representations of that the small number of individuals of men
forms all the countries at present inhabited; these extinct animals the present essay
and other animals that escaped from the efcontains two entire skeletons, one of the
fects of that great revolution, have since megatherium (plate 3) dug out of alluvial propagated and spread over the lands then soil near Buenos-Ayres, in South Ameri- newly laid dry; and consequently, that the ca,-an animal apparently allied to the human race has only resumed a progressive sluths, and the ornithocephalus, found near state of improvement since that epoch, by Aichstedt, in Germany,-a quadruped of forming established societies, raising monuthe bat kind, with the head of a bird, If ments, collecting natural facts, and confurther proofs were wanting, the Ameri, structing systems of science and of learning can mammoth, or great mastodon, may be
" Yet farther,—That the countries which added, the skeleton of which was disintere by this last revolution, had been formerly
are now inhabited, and which were laid dry red in this state and is to be seen in the inhabited at a inore remote era, if not by museum of Philadelphia.
man, at least by land animals; that, conseThe relation which the species of fossil quently, at least one previous revolution bones bear to the strata in which they are had submerged them under the waters; and found, is treated of in the 29th section, p. that, judging from the different orders of ani. 111. Here it is stated, that shells alone mals of which we discover the remains in a are found in the oldest flætz, or secondary fossil state, they had probably experienced formations. The next in order are ovi
two or three irruptions of the sea. parous quadrupeds, as alligators, croco
“These alternate revolutions form, in my diles, tortoises, &c. and among them no important to be solved, or rather to be accu
opinion, the problem in geology that is most mammiferous land quadrupeds are to be rately defined and circumscribed ; for, in found. In the basin, around Paris, a for- order to solve it satisfactorily and entirely, mation of chalk, without organic remains, it were requisite that we should discover the lies above these. But land quadrupeds in cause of these events an enterprise involabundance succeed in the strata above ving difficulties of a very different nature.” the chalk. In the upper strata, or allu- We have thus endeavoured to give an vial deposites, are the remains of the ele- analysis of Cuvier's Theory of the Earth, phant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and mas- but any further observation on this, or the todon. The bones of existing animals are remaining parts of the present publication only found in the latest alluvial depositions. must be deferred to our next number. Among the great number and variety
K. of organic remains bitherto discovered, no
(To be routinuerl.
ART. 6. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.
Supplement to DR. MITCHILL'S “ Obser- position in which the teeth and bones were
vations on the Geology of North-Ame- found, was somewhat remarkable. The rica,” just published by Messrs. Kirk & large teeth, two of which weighed 161b. Mercein, in the Description of a Fossil each, and several more of less weight and Elephant, discovered in Wythe County, size, were deposited in a manner by themsouthwest of the River Thanhawa, in selves, and deeper in the ground, accordVirginia, written by Dr. John Stranger, ing to their gravity: round about those, to lieut. Wm. L. Brownlow, of the U. some little distance off, were the teeth and S. Marine Corps, stationed at N. York, bones of the lesser animals, placed in a se
dated Wythe County, March 10, 1818. micircle; of the latter I found several jawDEAR SIR,
bones with their teeth sticking fast; and Your letter has been received some in one upper-jaw I found besides a tusk, weeks ago, after my return from North- about 20 inches long, shaped like a cow's Carolina, which should have been an- horn, round, crooked, tapering off to a swered before this time, had I not been point, hollow at the base, and pointing at a loss to know, what particular infor- forward towards the nose, also a couple of mation Dr. Mitchill wishes with regard to ribs and shoulder blades. The smaller the teeth and bones found on Mr. Kinsa's animals I judged to have been of the land. However, that you may not think carnivorous, from the shape of their teeth, your friendly application to me disregard- which had a double row of high conic proed, I will now comply with your request, cesses, three to each row, between 3 and as well as I can. The place where the 4 inches from the bottom of the root to discovery was made, is a small marshy the top of the tooth, and each was about piece of ground, not more than 40 feet 3 inches long. All the teeth of the large square, in a field which has been for more animal (I found po bones of this animal) than 20 years in cultivation, and has pre- were flat, and ribbed transversely. This vious to that time, as I am informed, been remarkable position of the different bones used as a lick by horses and cattle, a and teeth, made me suppose, that the small spring of mineral taste oozes from large animal bad died in a conflict with the spot. The owner of the field observ- the smaller ones. Or why should I have ed repeatedly in the summer season, in found several sets of teeth and bones of dry weather, after a refreshing shower, the one kind, and all in that semiçircle, that the place was covered with a white and but one set of teeth of the large anisubstance like salt. Under this impres- mal opposite to them. None of these sion be began to dig in search of salt wa- teeth were deeper than about 6 feet in ter. The ground being opened a few feet the ground, when a flat limestone rock in depth, he found a few uncommon teeth commenced, which rock must have been and small round bones, about 4 inches once nearer to the surface, for I found long and about 1 1-2 inches in diameter, pine-knots, and pieces of rotten wood solid and somewhat larger in circumfer- withio two feet above it. This, sir, is all ence at each end, like joints of a tail, or the information I can think of, should Dr. toe. The news of this discovery induced Mitchill be desirous to know any other several persons to visit the spot : I also circumstance relative to this affair, I will went, and being desirous to make a far- cheerfully give it, if in my power. ther search, I obtained permission to make
I am, Sir, respectfully, a larger opening, say 12 feet square, and
Your humble servant, found a number of still larger teeth and
JOHN STRANGER. bones, belonging, in my opinion, to two difserent species of animals, larger than any We now have within our states. The bones To the Editors of the American Monthly were so much decayed, that they would
Magazine. generally fall to pieces, when exposed to THE-salivating qualities which our pasthe air; the teeth I preserved, and some tures seem to possess for these last ten or time afterwards put them in the possession fifteen years, so distressing to horses and of Dr. John Floyd, (a member from Vir- neat-cattle, I have long wished to see phiginia in the present congress) residing in losophically investigated and publicly anMontgomery county, who probably, sent nounced. The farmer, however, is still them to some Museum. The soil was so left to his own vague conjectures, and strongly impregnated with the mineral, there is not a species of grass or herb that it tasted like copperas itself. The which will grow in pasture land, but has
been accused of producing this deleteri- summer months. Should this suggestion pus effect. Now, permit me to suggest, induce the curious to an investigation of (which I can do with much confidence,) the properties and rapid progress of this that it ought not to be attributed to any insect, and a plain publication of the same, vegetable whatever, but to that species with the best method of counteracting its of spider which, weaving a thick horizon- baneful effects, its object will have been tal web near the surface of the ground, attained, and the suggestor highly graticovers, in some pastures, one-tenth of the fied.
D. D. surface during the greater part of the Marcellus, April 2, 1818.
The following is taken from a Glasgow paper of the 20th of January Last; deem it worth a place in your useful magazine, you can give it one.
" SR-Allow me to submit to you, a reference to the curious coincidence of the figures 1818, which depote the present year, viz. that the two first are 18, the two last 18, and the sum of all
1818 multiplied by 2 give
3636 the sum of which is 18
common sense, and ordinary intelligence, The writer of the fifth article in your that some of the remarks in that review Magazine for April, assumes to have tak- are reprehensible. en a survey “of ancient and modern The writer would make us believe that times and nations.” He does not appear in the English “ island, more has been acto be exactly qualified for such a task. I complished for the glory of our species than do not intend to offer a review of the “Re- in all other regions of the globe - This is view of Ellis's embassy to China ;” I beg hyperbolical—it is untrue. No one will leave merely to rectify a few of the mis- deny that England deserves our admiratakes, which occur in that article.. tion ;-let her possess that meed, but let
It must be evident to erery person of other countries not be deprived of their just portion. And, when we speak in lustre on England. And it would be an general terms of any individual people, easy matter to quote names and works to or “ regions of the globe;" when we prove the fallacy of the assertion : “ compresume to make estimates of individual pared with the strain of the British muses, and national character, let that which is the poetical productions of their continenexceptionable and commendable, equally tal rivals lose alınost the whole of their claim our consideration. As to “ achieve attraction."
K. ments in literature, science, and the arts, England, though eminent, is by no means Though we do not intend to open the transcendent. Some of the most bene- door of discussion, in regard to the corficial inventions and discoveries were in- rectness of opinions stated in the reviews troduced into England from other coun- which appear in this miscellany, yet we tries. Many indisputable facts might be have no hesitation in giving place to coradvanced to prove this assertion. How- rections in regard to statements of facts. cver, for the present, the following may The review of Ellis's book is from the pen suffice as a reply to the erroneous state- of a gentleman of talents and learning, ments set forth in the review.
whose contributions frequently enrich our “ In the year 1769, kine-pox was de- pages. Having a just confidence in his scribed (in a weekly paper: Allgemaine abilities, and not imagining that he could Unterhaltungen, published at Göttingen,) make the subject, of which he professed as a well known disease here in this to treat, an occasion of offence, we percountry' (Germany), which infects persons mitted his sheets to be sent to the press who attend the dairies and prevents the without our inspection. There were many infection of small-pox.” Dr. Jenner, assertions, in that article, besides those (an Englishman with a German name) complained of by our correspondent, first published his “Inquiry into the causes which, had we had an opportunity to reand effects of Variola Vacaina,” &c. in vise it, we should have expunged. The 1798, twenty-nine years later.
extravagant eulogium on British genius Some have attributed “the invention was entirely misplaced in an American of Logarithms” to lord John Napier, a publication; and some of the literary Scotchman. But “ there is greater rea- opinions advanced by the author of that son to believe that a German clergyman, review are opposed to those_previously Michael Stiefel was the inventor of Lo- expressed by ourselves. EDITORS. garithms, in 1599.”
“ In 1793, Walther, a citizen of Nürn. berg, first observed astronomical refrac. To the Editors of the American Monthly tion."
Magazine and Critical Review. “ In 1604, John Kepler, a German, GENTLEMEN, established a theory of refraction.”
One of your correspondents, in the “ In 1609, the same predecessor and Magazine for last month, communicated pioneer of the immortal Newton, dis- remarks on the method I proposed for covered that the courses of the planets are finding the latitude by altitudes of the sun eliptic, &c. &c. He made some calcu- taken at a distance from the Meridian. lations of the proportionate motions of the For my communication entitled, Hints on celestial bodies; suspected a power of the Methods of determining the Latitude gravitation and attraction universally and and Longitude of places on the Land, your mutually operative among the planets.” readers are referred to the Magazine for
“On the 29th of December in the December last. Your correspondent from same year, Simeon Marius (Meyer,) at New-Bedford, is entitled to my thanks for Ansbach, first observed the satellites of the kind remarks he has made upon it, Jupiter; and in 1618, Kepler made some and the friendly manner in which he unfurther discoveries relative to the revolu- dertakes to convince me of my supposed tion of the planets."
On a review of the same, it is “ The first account of a Steam-Engine frankly acknowledged, that the example is given by Matthesius, a clergyman in or case alluded to, was stated, inadverloackimsthal, Bohemia, in the year 1562," testly, in such a manner as to give a a long time before the Marquis of Wor- wrong impression of the use I made of it. cester was born.
The altitudes taken Aug. 6, 1817, were Every person acquainted with litera- intended for the correction of a patent ture in general, knows very well that on lever watch, not well regulated, and for the European continent, there is as bright obtaining the apparent time a nearly as a constellation of " inen of letters, and possible for other observations. The mean in the sphere of divinity” as ever shed a of these gave the time per watch, 8 ho,
8 m. 38.8 sec. the mean altitude corrected and lastly 43', he will discover the last to 32° 24' 3.5", and in this instance, the po- be true, because all the elements, or data, lar distance was reduced to the time per are in harmony with each other. It is watch. It may not be improper to remark, confessed, that at the time, I was reasonthat having taken the latitude of my ing in a circle of my own førining, and school-room and observatory, at No. 331 seemingly had a right thus to reason, havBroadway, in Sept. 1816, it was found to ing found the centre. But this being be 40° 42' 58" N. In August and Septem- done, it ought to have been my care to ber, 1817, great pains were taken to ve- go out of it, and give the problem its prorify or disprove its correctdess. To effect per limitations. Hoping it is not too late, this, altitudes were taken near the meri- in some measure to atone for this omisdian, and when possible, the meridian al- sion, it is thus stated : The longitude of titude. And after I had found to my satis. a place on the land, and the true time befaction, that all the best observations tend- ing known, to determine the latitude of the ed nearly to the same point ; several sets same, by altitude of the sun, taken tuo or of altitudes which had appeared to be three hours before or afli noon, with a very correct, and first taken for obtaining sextant and artificial horizon, when the the true time, were now selected to verify meridian altitude is too great to le meathe latitude by the method your corres- sured by those instruments.
Your cor pondent alludes to. In the foregoing ex. respondent will doubtless admit the posample, the watch being 7 m. 35 sec. slow, sibility of obtaining the true time indethe polar distance was now reduced to pendent of the latitude; and may be inthe apparent time, and from these ele- formed that there is no necessity of taking ments the latitude came out essentially the altitudes so near the horizon, as to be the same as before. In three or four ex. very sepsibly affected by the difference periments of the same kind, the variations between the true and mean refraction; from 40° 43' was not more than two or and also, that the errors arising from this three seconds; hence it was concluded, source, may be so diminished, as to bethat the latitude, times, and altitudes, come almost insensible, by the use of the were all very nearly correct. This me- Barometer and Thermometer. It will be thod, it is believed, will prove an assumed, seen, from what has already been stated, or supposed latitude, to be true when it that I still differ in opinion from your coris actu so; and if I am not much de- respondent in several particulars; and I ceived, will discover whether it is mate- cannot agree with him where he says, “ A rially incorrect. And, although it is ad- small error in the altitude, taken at a dismitted, that the problem as it stands in tance from the meridian, will cause a conmy former communication, can be of no siderable error in the latitude.” I think great value in discovering the true lati. he will be convinced by a little reflection, tude, I cannot agree with your correspon- that an error of the meridian altitude, will dent that it will prove fallacious.
cause an error of the same amount in the Let us suppose the true latitude, for an latitude; whereas the absolute error in example, to be 40° 43' N. and the longi- the other case will be less than the small tude 74" W. the altitudes truly taken error of the altitude. In matters of sciat the time aforesaid, would correspond ence, truth, and not 'strife, should be the to this only. And if the observer had sup- object of its votaries. Under the impresposed it to be 40° 40', the apparent time sion of a similarity of feeling, between deduced from this would differ from the him and myself, in this respeci, I remaiu, former about 44 seconds, and instead of Gentlemen, reproducing the latter, would bring out
Your most obedient servant, 40° 38'. Now perceiving that 40 is too
M. NASH. far to the southward, let him try 41, 42 New-York, April 10, 1818
ART. 7. LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.
LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. polished rectangular or triangular plates GREAT BRITAIN.
or mirrors at one of their edges, that their A VERY pretty little instrument was surfaces may form an angle of about 180
invented during the last summer by more or less. The plates are from 5 to 10 Dr. Brewster of Edinburgh. He calls it inches long, according to the local disthe Kaleidoscope (mades, udos, and oxote2.) tance of the eye, and are placed together It is oonstructed by placing together two in a tube, one end of which is left entirely