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The tower consists of two stories, to which a circular staircase conducts. The lower story is the subject of the cut, taken when the apartment had been dismantled of the trappings by which it had been adapted for a military messroom, and previous to the work of restoration recently effected. The interior of this edifice is rich in the sad memorials of distinguished captives carved in the walls, mixed with some curious rebuses and other conceits. One on the left, on entering the room, contains the arms and name of a Peverel, otherwise unknown, but which is understood to have


ARMS AND NAME OF PEVEREL. suggested to the author of Waverley' the idea of his novel of * Peveril of the Peak.' Another contains the following noble maxim :

“I. H. S.
Anno D. 1571. X. P. S 10 Sept.

The most vnhapy
man in the world is he
that is not pacient in ad-
versities. For men are not

killed with the adversities
they have: but with ye impa-

cience which they suffer.
Tout vient apoient, quy, peult attendre
Gli sospiri ne son testimoni veri dell'angos
cia mia.

CHARLES BAILLY.” The building which has obtained the title of the Bloody Tower appears to have been constructed in the fifteenth century, and is popularly understood to have been thus designated from its having been the scene of the murder of the young princes, Edward V. and his brother Richard, Duke of York; but the association of their violent death with this part of the Tower buildings is unsupported by any evidence. The gloomy aspect of the begrimed and time-worn building, with its lowering gateway and portcullis, and heavy flanking tower, agree with the ominous title, however acquired, perhaps from the aggregate of untimely death suffered by its inmates. The accompanying view was taken previous to the removal of the warders' lodgings which lined its southern approach on the left hand. Of the other portions of the clustered stronghold—the Bell Tower, the Martin Tower, the Byward Tower, &c., &c.—some features remain ; others have succumbed to time and violence, or are metamorphosed by the work of restoration ; but association has proved stronger than the material part of the ancient fortress. The poet's apostrophe rises spontaneously to the mind as we enter its frowning portal

“Ye towers of Julius, London's lasting shame," and an host of puissant shadows fill the space between the present and the remote past, stretching beyond the boundaries of history into

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the regions of dreamy speculation, and time, whose darkness is only rendered visible by the ignis fatuus of a name. Not that the great Roman can, by any stretch even of imagination, be included among the genius loci of the Tower ; but as we have in history a succession of Cæsars, wherefrom to choose upon whom shall be affiliated the original structure or presumed arx palatina of the Romans, it may not be going too far, supposing the Romans had a fort upon this spot-the grounds for which supposition have already been stated in the record of discoveries of Roman masonry and other vestiges on the site to receive the idea of its having been so designated from one of the later members of the imperial family.

Another fata morgana of old glimmers before the eye that reads the striking but perplexing words of FitzStephen, where, speaking of London, he says :-“It hath on the east part a tower palatinate, very large and very strong, whose court and walls rise up from a deep foundation. The mortar is tempered with the blood of beasts.”

FitzStephen died in the year 1191, and the time of his writing must have been considerably within a century of the erection of Gundulph's edifice, which must have appeared to him as a thing comparatively new, and the particulars of its erection familiarly known to many, as having taken place in their fathers' time, and yet the terms he uses convey the impression of some association handed down from a remote period, mentioned but not accounted for. Under this impression the idea presents itself that possibly the White Tower may be in some measure the restoration of a Roman edifice, and that the foundations it stands upon may be those upon which the blood of Roman sacrifices may have been sprinkled, thus giving rise to the saying of the mortar being “tempered with the blood of beasts.”

Into such figments the motes which glimmer in the faint rays of antiquity shape themselves, only to be transfigured by a change of position or the twinkling of an eyelid. But other shadows, which still cling to this time-peopled region, are the reflex of an historical substance, rendered familiar by chroniclers. Thus we learn that in the troubled reign of Stephen, the redoubtable Geoffrey de Mandeville held the Tower by authority of the Empress Matilda, Stephen's unsuccessful rival for the crown.

In the first year of Henry I. we have a notable instance of prison-breaking on the part of the belligerent Bishop of Durham, Ralph Flambard, who substantiated his name by the lordly roasts wherewith he regaled his keepers; and in maintenance of the maxim that “good eating demands good drinking,” he so effectually soothed their vigilance with the appliance of strong wine, that, by means of a rope conveyed to his hands in a tun of his generous auxiliary, he escaped by a window, while Argus, beguiled by Bacchus, snored unconsciously.

Another attempt was less successful. In the year 1244 Griffith, the eldest son of Leoline, Prince of Wales, being a prisoner in the Tower, devised his escape by making a rope of the hangings, &c., with which his cell was furnished; but being a bulky man the rope gave way, and he was precipitated to the ground, where, on the following morning, he was found dead, his head being literally driven into the trunk by the concussion.

The head of Leoline, the last Prince of Wales, afterwards appeared upon the Tower crowned with a wreath of ivy. He was taken at Bluith Castle, and in an angry discussion there with an Englishman, Roger le Strange, the latter struck his head off, and thus ended the line of British sovereigns.



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“ And, hark ! how loud each hollow gust of wind

Salutes the dreary plains; and fast the snow
Drifts through the bleak air, leaving not behind
One soothing smile of summer's warmer glow.”

Songs for all Seasons. A CONSIDERABLE time elapsed without any natives showing themselves in the neighbourhood of the white men.

These were,

therefore, at any rate, quite unmolested ; and winter, with all its terrors, beginning to set in, confined the colonists to the immediate neighbourhood of their dwelling. The north wind blew coldly, the snow fell fast at intervals, and masses of ice again filled the harbour, and piled themselves into icebergs with a crashing noise, so completely surrounding and walling up the ship, as to make its leaving the harbour utterly impossible; thus cutting off Egede and his party from all communication with home for many months to come. The sun now never showed itself till towards eleven o'clock in the day, and then did not remain much more than two hours above the horizon. In those short days--when time hung heavy on the men's hands, and darkness gave them an excuse for being idlewhile all vegetable life around had died away, and the very earth appeared fast asleep* -evil began to brew in the hearts of some of the men.

The merchant-bookkeeper was terribly out in his reckoning : instead of the high heaps of bear, fox, hare, seal, and reindeers' skins which he had counted on; instead of the ladings of fat, train-oil, walrus-teeth, and fish-bones, which he had hoped to receive from the poor, foolish Greenlanders, in exchange for a few pipes, he saw nothing but mighty icebergs, which threatened to annihilate the ship altogether!

The doctor had no practice, even as a barber, much less as a physician. The smith missed his brandy, the carpenter his tobacco ; and the bricklayer had exhausted his snuff, and saw no prospect of getting any more. The sailors were weary of being told they must not swear,

and be sober; and the women were unable to wash out of doors, owing to the frost and cold, and therefore lost their best opportunity for a good chatter. As all had expected to find plenty of game in Greenland, they had brought but little smoked meat, pork, or salted fish out of Norway, and this proved to have been a great mistake. To be sure there were a good many wild animals, and great abundance of fish, but none of these could be caught without skill and trouble; so roast meat was a great rarity in the new colony. One day Egede was sitting with his family round the simple and rough dinner-table in his division of the house; his wife had just placed upon the table a dish


* “Silence reigned around us,-a silence far different from that peaceable composure which characterizes the landscape of a cultivated country ; it was the death-like stillness of the most dreary desolation and the total absence of animated existence."-PARRY'S ‘Voyages,' vol. i. p. 210. Translator's Note.

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