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His first destination was Normanton, where he was received by his father and sisters with the utmost tenderness, though not with their usual happiness. There had always been a perfect understanding between him and his father, and he was above the most distant approach to deceit. As it was necessary, therefore, to account for the step he had taken, he intimated, as concisely and as delicately as it was possible, the real cause of his quitting Woodville. Mr. Welsh showed by his countenance, more than by his words, the pain that his son's communication gave him. For a few minutes after Henry had finished, he was silent; then, catching the eye that was anxiously bent on him, he said —

“You have done right; there is but one path which can ultimately lead to happiness, even in this life,—the path of integrity, of honour, and gratitude.”

ANCIENT LONDON.–No. I. The Anglo-Saxon dominion ended with the death of Harold, on the sanguinary field of Senlac, about six centuries after its introduction by the treachery of Hengist. Edwin Earl of Northumberland, and Morcar Earl of Mercia, hastened from the disastrous fight to London, where they proposed to the citizens the expedient of attempting to oppose the pretensions of the Conqueror, by setting up Edgar Atheling, the feeble-minded grandson of Edmund Ironsides, as king, and he was proclaimed accordingly.

The Conqueror, apprised of the resolution of the citizens to maintain London in behalf of the Saxon dynasty, advanced with his forces to Southwark, where the Londoners sallied forth, but were repulsed with great loss by five hundred of the Norman horsemen.

William, finding the citizens obstinately opposed to him, and deeming it inexpedient to undertake the siege of London in the winter season, marched westward, leaving Southwark in ashes, and sat down at Berkhampstead, where Atheling was among the first to meet him and tender his submission. The consecrated banner given by the Pope to William served as a rallying point, not only to the Norman chivalry, but to the clergy generally, but for whose support it is probable the invader might have found himself unable to maintain his new footing.

Under this ecclesiastical influence the Londoners were induced to forsake the councils of the two patriotic earls and their newlychosen king, and to open their gates to the Norman, an example


which was speedily observed by the country generally. Before trusting himself within the walls of London, the Conqueror took the precaution of throwing up a fortress on the site of the Tower, as a garrison for his Norman troops, in order to overawe his new subjects the citizens. This was effected in the year 1066. Twelve years afterwards the citadel, or White Tower, whose walls still remain as firm as the rock from whence they were quarried, was commenced by the eminent military architect Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester. *

This massive stronghold consists of three lofty stories, underneath which is a series of vaults. The first floor is divided into three apartments, two of which appear to have been designed for prisons, and the third, which ends in a semicircle, may have served the purpose of an oratory. Two large chambers lie over these, and above them is the chapel of St. John, a solemn vaulted edifice of three aisles, supported on either side by five cylindrical pillars, the square faces of the capitals being ornamented with a cross; over the side aisles is a clerestory, the middle aisle terminating in an apse at the east end where the altar stood. The present use of the chapel as a depository for the Navy Records, the presses containing which obstruct the general view, is represented in the annexed woodcut (page 19).

The completion of the New Record Office will authorize the removal of this impediment, and restore an unimpeded view of the finest and most perfect specimen of early Norman architecture this country can exhibit. The records, most valuable as they are, although here misplaced, lay within recent times over a magazine of gunpowder, deposited in the vaults below, a fact which was stated to the late Duke of Wellington, then Lieutenant of the Tower. His Grace's response was a remarkable instance of singleness of mind. He replied, “Let them be, the papers won't harm the powder."

The third story contains the council chambers, in which Richard II. resigned his crown and state into the hands of Henry of Lancaster.

A winding stair (shown in the woodcut, page 20) leads to the roof of the Tower, at each of the four corners whereof is a turret; that at the north-east being distinguished as having formerly been used by Flamstead, the first astronomer royal, as an observatory. The Tower was inclosed by Longchamp, Bishop of Ely and Chancellor of England in the reign of Richard I., on pretence

* Stow informs us, on the authority of Edmund de Haddenham, that Gundulph was lodged in the house of one Edmere, a citizen of London, during the progress of this work.

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of providing against the designs of the Prince John upon the state. The drawing from which the woodcut is copied was taken in November 1846, at which time a canteen, called the Golden Chain, was demolished, with other buildings, which had been raised against the Salt Tower, one of the oldest of the towers by which the original Ballium wall was defended, being supposed to date from the reign of William Rufus. The vestige of Longchamp's wall thus brought to light, as seen in the view, was composed of blocks of chalk and Aints, and faced with Kentish ragstone. Its height, when the drawing was taken, was about forty feet, and the thickness of the wall about nine feet.

In a survey of the time of Henry VIII., the Salt Tower is designated Julius Cæsar Tower.

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The Salt Tower is a circular building, having in the basemen story a vaulted dungeon, surrounded by deep recesses, constructed in the substance of the wall. The story above is approached by a flight of steps leading from the top of the Ballium wall. Å chamber in this part contains several devices and inscriptions, carved in the masonry, the most striking of which is a sphere with

• “The wall from the foresay'd Tower unto Julyus Cæsar Tower, at the este end of the Kynges-gallery, conteyning in lengthe cxxxv. foote the which walle parte of yt to be copyd and crestyd wt Cane stone, and also rough caste.

“Cane stone vj tons xxxs, lyme to the same viijç, sande to the same xiii. loads xije.'

the signs of the zodiac, denoted by their proper astrological characters, underneath which is the following inscription :

“Hew : Draper : of: Bristow : made : thys :

Spheer : the 30 : daye : of : Maye : anno 1561." A carving of a globe in the same apartment is supposed to have been the work of the same hand. Of this Hugh Draper the Rev. Mr. Brand gives some particulars in the ‘Archæologia' (vol. xiii. p. 98). These are derived from a MS. copy of an


THE SALT TOWER, account of the prisoners delivered to the Lords of the Privy Council on the 26th of May 1561, by Sir Edward Warner, knight, Lieutenant of the Tower, containing as follows :

“Hugh Draper, committed the 21st of March 1560.

“This man was brought in by the accusation of one John Man, an astronomer, as suspect of a conjurer, or sorcerer, and thereby to practice matter againste Sir William St. Lowe and my Ladie ; and in his confession it aperithe that before time he hath ben busie and doinge with such matters, but he deniethe any matter of weight touchinge Sir Williain

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