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two, and the king three of the buried thousands. The Lord Mayor and the constable of the Tower assisted in the search.

“Sir H. Benet and my Lord Mayor did give us full power to fall to work ; so our guide demands a candle, and down into the cellars he goes inquiring whether they were the same that Baxter always had. He went into several little cellars, and then went out a-doors to view, and to the coal harbour, but none did answer so well to the mark which was given him to find it by as one arched vault; where, after a great deal of counsel whether to set upon it now, or delay for better and more full advice, to digging we went till almost eight o'clock at night, but could find nothing."

The search was renewed, but, says Samuel, “We went away like fools." In a third attempt they were accompanied by a woman who undertook to make all clear, but the search was still in vain. In a fourth attempt they betook them to dig in the garden ; but Pepys' ardour was by this time cooled, and he took refuge in the governor's house, where he beguiled the time by the fire, reading one of the plays of Phineas Fletcher. At last, he says, “ We went to them at work, and having wrought below the bottom of the foundation of the vault, I bid them give over, and so all our hopes ended."

Tower Hill remained for a considerable time debatable ground between the Crown and the City. In the reign of Edward IV. the king's officers erected there a gallows and a scaffold for the execution of offenders; but the citizens were roused by this invasion on their privilege of hanging and heading, and the king issued a proclamation, by which he disavowed any part in the encroachment. Thenceforth the lethal apparatus was provided by the City, and the lieutenant surrendered all further authority over the condemned, on receiving a quittance for his body from the sheriff at the outer gate of the fortress. Sir Simon de Burley, knight of the garter, and companion and tutor to Richard II., appears to have been the first to suffer by the axe on Tower Hill. Froissart, speaking of the sacrifice to faction of this good knight, says, "To write of his shameful death right sore displeaseth me, for when I was young I found him a most noble knight, sage, and wise." The good queen, Anne of Bohemia, is said to have remained for three hours on her knees before the Duke of Gloucester—the king's uncle --imploring mercy for him in vain. To detail the long series which followed would only be in a measure to repeat the summary of eminent prisoners of the Tower. The last execution on this fatal spot, within the writer's knowledge; he himself witnessed during a recent perambulation; but it was in character with the present settled and uneventful times, being that part in the performance of Master Punch when, by a dexterous movement, he surrenders to the hangman the grinning honours of the noose, and leaves him to swing in his stead. This was enacted upon the very spot once burthened by the scaffold, and it suggested the impression of a grotesque tailpiece at the conclusion of a long and dreary story.

On the completion of the fortress on Tower Hill, the Conqueror entered London amid a great display of rejoicing, and on the Christmas-day following the first Norman King of England was crowned in Westminster Abbey, the last work and sepulchre of the Confessor. Prefatory to the ceremony, a Norman prelate--Geoffrey bishop of Cautances—asked the Normans present, in their own tongue, if they were willing that William should be crowned king of England. Then the Archbishop of York asked the English if they would have William the Norman for their king. The acclamation which ensued was so great, that the foreign troops outside the Abbey mistook it for a cry of alarm, and in a sudden impulse of mistrust and resentment they set fire to several houses near the Abbey. Amid the fire and confusion, some rushed to the Abbey to the rescue of their duke, whom they deemed betrayed, their weapons flashing through the smoke of the burning tenements, and raised such a tumult that the Normans, conceiving this to be the token of a general insurrection of the population of London, while the English suspected the whole to be a pretext for their massacre, unarmed and in the garb of peace as they were, both parties rushed forth out of the sacred building in dismay and confusion. Meanwhile, thus portentously begun, the ceremony went on, William being left with only the Archbishop and a few dismayed priests, insisting, although he trembled from head to foot, that they should carry out the ceremony, and with maimed rites, amid din and confusion, the Conqueror took the coronation oath of the Anglo-Saxon kings, with this spontaneous addition that he would treat the English people as well as the best of their kings had done. The betterdisposed among the Normans then exerted themselves to check their countrymen, who were plundering the houses of the English, as a pretext for which they had probably raised the tumult, and assisted in extinguishing the fire and restoring order. Thus at the beginning of William's reign the people of London experienced a foretaste of the violence and rapacity of the Norman soldiers, by which their countryman in general were oppressed through many generations. It is but fair, however, to ascribe much of those oppressions to the soldiers and military chiefs, whose insubordination

and insolence were not readily to be suppressed by a government their weapons had raised up, and which still required their support. The goodwill or policy of William is evident in his first act towards the City of London, in bestowing, at the intercession of William (Norman Bishop of London), a charter in the Anglo-Saxon language. The charter itself continues among the monumental treasures of the City. It consists briefly of four lines and a quarter, fairly written in the Saxon character, on a slip of parchment in length six inches, in breadth one inch.

The seal of the charter is of white wax, but being broken, the pieces are carefully sewed up in an orange or tawny-coloured silken bag. The seal bears the figure of the Conqueror on horseback. On the reverse he is represented seated in a chair of state. The rim of the seal being almost obliterated, the only visible part of the inscription are the letters M. WILL. The charter, being rendered into modern English, reads thus :

“ William the king friendly salutes William the bishop, and Godfrey the Portreve, and all the burgesses within London, both French and English. And I declare, that I grant you all to be law-worthy, as you were in the days of King Edward, and I grant that every child shall be his father's heir after his father's days, and I will not suffer any person to do you wrong. God keep you." *

The Conqueror afterwards granted to the citizens another charter in the same language as the first, which reads as follows :

“ William the king friendly salutes William the bishop, and Sweyn the sheriff, and all my thanes in East Saxony, whom I hereby acquaint, that pursuant to an agreement, I have granted to the people, my servants, the hide of land at Gyddesdune. And also, that I will not suffer either the French or the English to hurt them in anything.”+

It is remarked of this charter, that it does not mention the persons to whom the grant is made. The locality of the hide of land therein mentioned is understood to be Gadsden, in Hertfordshire. In William's reign the authority of the Portreve became subservient to that of the bailiff, or civil governor, which title merged into that of mayor. The first bailiff, by his name, Wolgarius, would appear to have been a Saxon; the second was Geffry de Magnum, a Norman. The erection of the Ecclesiastical Courts, as those of the archdeacon, bishop, and archbishop, were due to this reign. The Court of Appeal to the Archbishop of Canterbury was entitled the Court of Arches, from having formerly been held in the church of St. Mary le Bow (de Arcubus). * Brad. Hist. Treat. Bur.

+ Maitland, Hist. Lond.

LETTERS FROM ALABAMA.No. II.

Dallas, May 20th, 18. THERE is no solitude like that which is felt by him who for the first time walks the streets of a busy city in which he is a total stranger. Crowds of human beings pass by, each possessed of the thoughts, feelings, and affections of a man ; yet not one stretches out the hand of friendship, not one bestows a nod of acquaintance, not one gives so much as a glance of recognition. In the gloom of the forest, in the silence of the wilderness, far from human abodes, my heart leaps for joy; there I am not lonely, though alone; there hundreds of objects meet my gaze, with which I have long been accustomed to hold sweet communion.

“Thanks to the human heart by which we live,

Thanks to its tenderness, its joys, and fears ;
To me the meanest flower that blows can give

Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears." Such thoughts as these obtruded on my mind, as, having landed from the vessel just as day was departing, a time that predisposes to depression, I walked unheeded and unknown through the city of Mobile. These thoughts, however, soon passed off, and gave way to curiosity and surprise. I was struck by an unusual character, a certain something of a foreign appearance, which was forcibly evident, but which I cannot describe, in the streets a little removed from the more commercial part of the city. Perhaps it was owing to the absence of foot-pavements, and to the occurrence of large patches of what looked at a little distance like grass, but consisted only of short weeds very thinly scattered ; to the strange trees and plants which shaded the sides, such as the pride of China (Melia azedarach), the honey locust (Gleditschia triacanthos), the fan-palm (Chamærops palmetto), Adam's needle (Yucca aloifolia), &c.; to the almost universality of open verandahs, beneath which the inhabitants were sitting to enjoy the cool breath of evening; or to all these combined, and other causes which escaped my detection.

I was surprised to observe dead horses and cows suffered to lie exposed on the shore, scarce out of the town, a neglect which I should suppose by no means likely in this hot climate to contribute to the health of the inhabitants. The exhalations arising from the extensive muddy flats, which are left uncovered at low water, must likewise be very prejudicial, and probably materially tend to give this town the unhealthy reputation which it possesses. Placed at the mouth of two large rivers, which may be said to drain the whole of the State, and protected by a deep and capacious bay, Mobile may be considered as well situated for commerce; and a flourishing trade exists in cotton, the staple of the State, with Liverpool, London, Havre, and the ports of the northern United States. The shallowness of the water in the bay is however a drawback, as vessels above a hundred tons burden cannot come to the town, but are compelled to lie at fifteen or twenty miles distance, causing great delay in unloading and shipping goods.

Having left all nature still unemerged from the torpor of winter, when I departed, and having since spent a tedious period of many weeks on the ocean without any intermission, except that of the brief but pleasant hour spent on Cayo Boca, you will easily understand the enthusiasm with which I embraced the first opening of sunlight the next morning, to hasten into the dense forests which closely environ the town. Everything here was new, scarcely a tree occurred that I was familiar with, and few I can now recollect sufficiently to identify. The magnolias, superb and magnificent as they are, were conspicuous and numerous; the large, glossy, laurel-like leaves, gave them a rich and noble appearance, though I saw none of them adorned with the beautiful blossoms for which they are so famous. It may be that I was too late, that the season of flowering was over ; for, as I passed up the river, many trees on the banks were richly ornamented with blossoms, especially as I approached the hill country. Large and gorgeously-coloured insects hovered over the flowers, or fluttered from bush to bush, in such profusion that I was almost bewildered. I was but scantily furnished with collecting boxes, and one was no sooner occupied than it had to be emptied, and the former captive rejected for a more tempting prize, until at length I resolved to cease capturing, and content myself with admiring. A handsome locust was numerous in the larva state, of a glossy black, striped longitudinally with showy scarlet. I took a pretty little skipper butterfly which is not figured in Boisduval's splendid “Iconographie;" it is much like Hesperia malvce, but still more resembles H. Proto of Godart, or H. Orcus of Cramer. I observed, in the little pools of dark water by the road-sides and in the woods, numbers of creatures that would dart from the edge into deep water the instant a footstep approached, so quickly that it was almost impossible to catch a glance at their form. I at

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