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With an Introductory Essay by the them currency; but we cannot with. Rev. David Young. Glasgow : (ol. hold from our readers a quotation from lins. London: Whittaker. 1828. this essay, which well veserves the 12mo -- Judge Hale has long been a attention of all. favourite with the public, and this " There is often, in the pencilled deis one of his most useful works. It scriptions of the moralist, a kind of requires no commendation from us. poetical and high-wrought imagery. Mr. Young's Introductory. Essay is thrown around the chamber of death; written with great energy and discri- and that, whether it be the terrors of mination. He has very clear and ac- guilt, or the triumphs of conscious virtue, curate knowledge of the Gospel; and

which are conceived to mark this closing what he clearly perceives he very scene of our history in the world. It is forcibly expresses. The subject is

well to know what the plain and experithe necessity of combining religion

mental truth is, upon the subject. In with literature and science in educa

the case of a worldly and alienated life,

the remorse is not nearly so pungent, tion, on which we are quite of the

the apprehensions not nearly so vivid same mind with the respectable author,

and terrifying, the impression of future though we should, perhaps, differ with and eternal realities not nearly so overhim on the manner of carrying the powering, as we are apt to tancy upon principle into effect, under existing such an occasion. The truth is, that as circumstances.

it was throughout the whole of his living,

so it is generally in dying. He is still THE MISCHIEFS OF SELF-Iono

engrossed with present and sensible RANCE, AND THE BENEFITS OF Self- things; and there is positively nothing ACQUAINTANCE. By Richard Bax- in the mere approach of dissolution that ter. With an Introductory Essay, can raise up the ascendancy of faith, by the Rev. David Young, Glasgow, or render him less the slave of sight, Collins ; London, Whittuker. 12mo. and of the body, that he was before. 1828. 48.-The essay prefixed to this There is the present pain, there is the volume is a kind of continuation of present thirst, there is the present the subject of the essay prefixed to

breathlessness; and if, amid the tumults the former volume, more directly ap

of his earthly fabric giving way, and the

last irregular movements of its deranged plied to individual character. The

mechanism fast drawing to their cessasubject is very appropriately con tion, he send for the minister to sooth nected with Mr. Baxter's treatise on him by his prayers, even he forms but Self-Knowledge ;-one of the most one of the present varieties. There is no valuable of bis practical writings actual going forth of the patient's mind Mr. Young, in his former essay, shows towards the things which are above. that the knowledge of the true God,

The faith which he has so long shut out, of our moral relations to him as the

does not now force its entrance into a Great Supreme, and of that dispen

bosom, habituated to the reception of sation which he has revealed, to deli

no other influences, than what the world,

and the things of the world, have so ver us from sin and misery, is infi

long exercised over him. We may see nitely superior to the most splendid to

torpor upon such an occasion, and call attainments in science and philosophy. it serenity. We may witness an uncomIn this his object is to show, that the plaining silence, and call it resignation. knowledge of ourselves is absolutely We may never hear one note of alarm indispensable to a saving improve to drop from the lips of the dying sufment of the dispensation of mercy, ferer; and therefore say that he met

with Christian fortitude his end But SERIOUS ReflectionS ON TIME all these may meet upon a death-bed; AND Eternity. By John Shower. and yet, the positive confidence of lookAnd on the Consideration of our lattrr ing forward to heaven as a home, a posiEnd, and other Contemplations, by tive rejoicing in the hope of the glory of Sir Matthew Hale. With an Intro

God, a believing, and a knowing, that ductory Essay, by the Rev. Dr. Chal- : 'when the earthly house of this taber

nacle is dissolved, they shall have a buildmers. Glasgow, Collins; London,

ing of God, a house not made with Whittaker. 12mo. 1828 4s.- Of

hands, eternal in the heavens,' may never Hale and Shower we need say no

enter his bosom. There may be the thing, and Dr. Chalmers' productions

peacefulness of insensibility, even while require no testimouy of ours to give the life of him who lias been a stranger

to the faith of the Gospel is waning to Divines, with a short Memoir of each its extinction-but a peace mixed up Author. By John Rees 12mo. with the elevation of such prospects as pp. 370. 48. R Baynes.- The title of these, is never felt, apart from the this book conceals its real excelthought of Christ as the Lord our lencies. It contains a very faithful righteousness. It is altogether a ro

abridgment of Dr. Thomas Jacomb's mance to talk of such anticipations of

Discourse on the 8th of Romans ; triumph, to him who looks back upon his own obedience, and then looks forward

Dr. Robert Harris's Sermon on Perto his rightful and his challenged re

severance and Holy Importunity in ward. If we want our dying hour to Prayer; and Mr. Thomas Watson's have the radiance of heaven's gate Divine Cordial. Mr. Rees published thrown over it - if we want, amid the these treatises for the use of the failure of expiring nature, to have some humler classes, in monthly tracts, firm footing, on wbich we might strongly under the above title, and sacrificed and securely rest; there is positively the appearance of this volume to its none other, but that to which the cousi- more extensive usefulness. It howderation of our latter end should now

ever contains the substance of a scarce be urging us forward -- and, therefore,

and valuable volume, and we comshould we call upon ourselves now to take up with Christ as our foundation, and

mend it to the notice of our readers. to associate all our confidence in God, with the obedience which he has wrought,

WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION. with the ransom which he has rendered.”

The Omnipotence of the Deity: a -pp. xxi --xxiii.

Poem, in Three Cantos. By the Rev.

J. Young.- Andrew Ure, M.D. F.R.S. The CulTIVATION Of the MIND &c. has in the Press, a large Octavo AN OBJECT OF PRIMARY IMPORTANCE; Volume, entitled “A New System of being an Introductory Lecture deli

Geology, in wliich the Great Revolutions vered at the Opening of the Southamp

of the Earth and Animated Nature are ton Literary and Philosophical In- rece

reconciled at once to Modern Science stitution. By the Rev. "J. Davies,

:. and Sacred History.” Many new and

very striking Accordances are brought Author of An Estimate of the Hue out between the Results of Physical man Mind.


Hatchard. Research and Ancient Record; confirm

Hatchard. Resea 1828. 1s.- This is the production of ing to demonstration the Divine Ina writer of whose works we have had, spiration of Moses. This work will be more than once, occasion to speak in illustrated by Copper-plate Engravings, terms of approbation. It is enough besides about 50 Wood Engravings, renow to say, that the Lecture is worthy presenting the most curious Animal Inof his former productions, and ought habitants of the primeval World deto be read in convexion with the in

scribed by Cuvier, and other Fossil troductory Essay of Mr. Young, just

Zoologists. The volume will appear

abont the end of January.--Natural noticed.

History of Enthusiasm. Contents. EnDR. Watts's SHORT View of thusiasm Secular and Religious ; EnthuScripture History, a new Edition,

siasm in Devotion ; Enthusiastic Perverwith Tables of Chronology, Analyses

sion of the Doctrine of Divine Influence ; of Scripture, and other Improvements.

Enthusiasm the Sowce of Heresy; the

Enthusiasm of Prophetical InterpretaBy John Whitridge. 18mo. Price

tion; Enthusiastic Abuses of the Doc28. 6d. boards.

trine of a Particular Providence; the The Scripture DIARY for 1829;

Enthusiasm of Christian Philanthropy; comprising Daily Portions of the

Sketch of the Progress of Enthusiasm.Holy Scriptures, in the Order of their

The Christian Mariner's Journal ; or a

Series of Observations and Reflections History, for reading the whole Bible

on a Ship; the Sea; Sailors; the Works within the Year ; together with Selec

of God; the Heathen ; War; Time ; tions from the Calendars, and Notices

Death, &c. &c. Intended for the espeof Ecclesiustical and Biblical Litera cial benefit ot' Seamen, and the general ture. By John Whitridge. 12mo. good of every one. Written at Sea by Price 1s.

an Officer in the Royal Navy. In 1 vol.

12mo. -The Means of a Religious ReCROWN STREET CHAPEL TRACTS, vival: a Sermon preached at Reading, containing an Abridgment of the December 14, 1828. By John Howard Works of Ancient and Evangelical Hinton, M.A.


As there evidently exists in the minds themselves, through their immediate reof the religious public in this country a presentatives. If a Baptist, for indesire to be furnished with accurate and stance, resides in a parish where there regular information respecting the state is no Baptist Church, he is at liberty to of religion in the North American Re- prove that he has paid the assessment to public, we have made arrangements to a Baptist Church any where else; but secure a supply of early religious intelli- should he not be disposed to take this gence from the United States, which we trouble, the money is paid to the Town trust will enable us to present our Collector, who gives it to the church readers with an American Monthly Re- nearest his own place of residence."* cord, containing a fair report of the In the allotment of a certain number of number and present state of the various square miles of wilderness, to be laid outin Religious Denominations, Theological a township, some States have reserved a Seminaries, and Christian Societies, few hundred acres of land for the support which exist throughout that Union, to- of religion. This land, taken when worth gether with such announcements of the nothing, gradually becomes valuable as progress of religion amongst them as will civilization advances, and when it is of be acceptable to every Christian mind. value sufficient for a division, the inhabiTo prepare for future details, we shall tants of the town are required to make devote two or three pages to a brief their election. Every congregation which sketch of the constitution of these diver- is in truth a congregation, gets its share. sified communities, with a statistical re. The infidel, the solitary Catholic, or Jew, port of their present state, by which our gets nothing, it is true, for he does not readers will, we hope, be enabled, with want it, but, were there Jews or Cagreater facility, to realize the circum tholics enough to require support for stances which may be hereafter recorded, their worship, it is highly probable they and for the authority of which, we in would obtain their share. These, howtend to refer to various sources of infor ever, are the affairs of individual States, mation.

and not of the General Government; Sketch of the Constitution and Present and it may be said, that most, if not all

State of the leading Religious Sects in of the State Constitutions, leave the the United States.

matter in the same way. So that, in The Constitution of the federal Re- point of fact, the Clergy, and all that public establishes no one form of religion, pertains to religion in the United States, but secures to every citizen the tree are mainly supported by voluntary conexercise of his own. Consequently there tributions, or by endowments that have is no established religion in the United been made by devises, gifts, and other States. In fact, an amendment to the private means. Constitution contains a direct prohibition, It will be now necessary to enuinestating, that the Government of the rate the principal denominations, with Confederacy shall pass no law to create any ecclesiastical and statistical informaa religions establishment, or to prohibit tion we may be able to glean. the free exercise of religion. This de. THE PRESBYTERIANS are usually claration, however, only limits the power placed' first in the general returns. They of Congress, and leaves the individual have an Ecclesiastical Constitution and States to enact, by their own legislative Confession of Faith. Their Supreme authorities, what laws relating to religion Ecclesiastical Court is styled, The Genethey may deem expedient.

rul Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. Thus a considerable diversity exists on The subordinate bodies are Synods, Presthe subject of religion in the enactments byteries, and Church Sessions. There of the several State Legislations

are within the bounds of the General “ In the State of New Hampshire, its Assembly, 16 Synods, 90 Presbyteries, Constitution authorizes the Legislation to 1,214 Ministers, 218 Licentiates, 229 make provision for the support of Pro- Candidates, 1880 Churches, 679 Vacant testant ministers; and in Massachusetts Churches, and 136,479 Communicants. the same duty is enjoined. The practice The great body of the Presbyterians inis simply this. An assessment is laid on habits the Middle, Southern, and Western all the inhabitants according to their States. estates. It is, like all other assessments in this country, exceedingly light, as . * Notions of the Americans, Vol. II, its amount is regulated by the people p. 322.

THE CONGREGATIONAL form of considerable portion of that Calvinism, church government prevails almost univer- which knows not how to unite duty sally in New England, though a considera- with sovereignty, obligation with privible number of these churches are scat- lege, watchfulness with perseverance, tered throughout the Middle and and the necessity of prayer with divine Southern States. This system was influence. A Baptist Church practising adopted by the original settlers, and open or Christian communion I found modified by a convention of clerical and not; and one or two ministers did not lay delegates at Saybrook, Connecticuthesitate to avow, that they did not conin 1708. It partakes of the pecu- sider Pædobaptists as in the pale of the liarities of both the Independent and visible church!!” * Presbyterian systems. The congrega- This is, however, the largest commutions individually are formed on the nity of America. They have 190 Assoindependent model, having no officers, ciations, 3,723 Churches, 2,577 Minibut pastors and deacons, and their gene- sters, and about 275,000 Members. ral ecclesiastical affairs managed by the THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL whole church. Besides these, « the Church. This was once the Church Saybrook Platform,” has appointed Con of England, but since the Independence sociations, which are assemblies of mini of the United States, its constitution sters and lay delegates, in about equal has been greatly modified, and it has numbers, from churches within a particu- rapidly increased. They have no Arch. lar district. This body is a judicatory bishops which are not considered apos. for the trial of all ecclesiastical questions. tolical. They have three orders of Superior to those are the Associations, clergy - Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. which consist of ministers only, and are They have eleven dioceses, to each of of two kinds. Local Associations, for which is a Bishop, who is elected by the Counties and half Counties, have the convention of the diocese. They have power of examining and licensing no Episcopal palaces, but dwell in their preachers, and of regulating every own hired houses, nor Episcopal revenues, thing connected therewith. The General being supported as the other clergy, State Association, which meets annually by taking a parochial charge, and many is their Supreme Church Court, and is Presbyters have a larger maintenance composed of delegates from the Local than the Bishops. When they travel Associations. Besides the Local Asso- through their dioceses, the churches ciations, Councils exist, composed of mi. they visit pay their expenses. In many nisters and lay delegates, which are in- of the States, collections are made once vited by churches to settle their mini- a year in all the churches, to raise a sters, and to assist in accommodating any fund for their Diocesans. This, however, differences between the ministers and is not obligatory. The Bishops have no people. Preachers who have been patronage, nor can they by individual licensed by the Local Associations are authority appoint or remove any minire-examined by the Council before ordi- ster. No person has the gift of a nation over a particular church. It must parish; it depends entirely on the free be remarked, that these Associations choice of the people. The Book of Comhave only the power of advising, not to mon Prayer has undergone some alteracompel obedience, but their advice is tions. The Athanasian Creed is omitted generally respected. The General As- --the words, “ He descended into Hell,sociation of the State of Massachusetts, in the Apostles Creed, may be left out sends delegates to the General Assembly at pleasure. Some new arrangements of the Presbyterian Church of the have been made in the order of the United States, which meets annually in morning and evening service, and some Philadelphia, and which in its turn sends amendments in the office for the sick. + delegates to the General Association.* The government of this church is in

The Congregational Body has 62 Asso. vested in the Convention, which was ciations, 720 Ministers, 960 Churches, formed by a delegation from the States, 240 vacant Churches. In addition, there are from 100 to 150 Unitarian cises a power over all the dioceses, and Churches of their order.

sits once in three years, though it may The BAPTIST denomination, which is be summoned more frequently if necesstrictly Independent in its ecclesiastical sary. It is divided into an Upper and government. Mr. Ward says, “I fear a Lower House. The first is composed that there is amongst the Baptists a of the Bishops of the different States,

and the other of a portion of clergy and * Vide J.M. Duncan's Travels through part of the United States, &c. vol. 1. * Vide Ward's Farewell Letters, p. 294, p. 114-116.

+ Idem, p. 301-309. N. S. No. 49.


laity from the several dioceses. All mo. ings was made, when 89 congregations tions may originate in either house: were reported in connexion with Rhode although the concurrence of the majority Island, and 98 with New York Yearly of both must be obtained before they Meeting.* pass into a law. Beside this General Divisions affecting the essential princiConvention, there is one held each year ples of the gospel, have taken place in every diocese, composed of the clergy amongst them during the past year. and of lay-delegates from every congres The whole Quaker population of the gation, who legislate for the govern- United States, is computed at 750,000. ment of their own particular concerns, There exist a great number of minor but in accordance with the constitution denominations, into whose peculiarities we of the General Church. The elections cannot now enter, but present their to parishes differ with the charters of names, and numerical strength, on the the congregations. Some Churches leave authority of The Quarterly Journal of the the appointment of the minister to the Americun Education Society. vestry-men, who are annually selected German Reformed, 90 Ministers, 400 by the pew-holders; others elect him by Churches, 30,000 Communicants. the ballot of the whole congregations.

Reformed Dutch, 2 Synods, 16 Classes, It is left entirely to the Clergymen who 150 Churches, Ministers about the same, shall be admitted to the ordinances. 14,000 Communicants. The discipline varies in the different Evangelical Lutherans, 200 Ministers, States. This Church has 11 Bishops, 800 Congregations. 486 Clergymen, 598 Churches, and Universalists, 140 Ministers, 250 So24,075 Communicants.

cieties. THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH Swedenborgians, 50 Ministers, 12 Soincludes the followers of Mr. Wesley, cieties; whole population, 100,000. in the United States, who are found in Shakers, 40 Preachers, 16 Societies ; the greatest numbers in the Southern whole population, 5,400. and Western States. They have three Cumberland Presbyterians, 60 Ministers, Bishops, whose peculiar authority is not 60 Congregations. distinctly defined. Their business is Christians, 250 Ministers, 250 Churches, conducted by sixteen Conferences, which 20,000 Communicants. include 83 Districts, 890 Circuits, 1465 Free will Baptists, 242 Ministers, 335 Preachers, beside a large number of Churches, 30 Licentiates, 12,000 CommuLocal Preachers, and 381,997 members. nicants.

THE ROMAN CATHolics are most Seven-day Baptists, 29 Ministers, 18 numerous in the States of Maryland. Churches, 2,862 Communicants. Louisiana, and Florida. The first is re S ix Principle Baptists, 20 Ministers, garded as the head quarters of Popery 15 Churches, 1,500 Communicants. in the Union. It was, indeed, originally Free Communion Baptists, 23 Ministers, a Roman Catholic Colóny, established by 32 Churches, 1,284 Communicants. Calvert, Lord Baltimore, of Ireland, Tunkers, 30 Ministers, 33 Churches, who discovered a noble freedom from 3,000 Communicants. the worst part of Popery, its intolerance, Mennonites, 200 Ministers, 225 Churby establishing religious liberty in its ches, 20,000 Communicants. fullest extent. They have i Arch- We conclude this article, by extracting bishop, 4 Bishops, and 600,000 members. a paragraph or two from a recent publi

The FRIENDS, or Quakers, are most cation of Mr. Cooper, a popular American numerous in the States of Pennsylvania,

od of Pennsylvania writer. New Jersey, and New York; the two

“ You may be inclined to ask, if such former states were originally settled by a competition does not lead to strife and members of this Society. This commu

ill-blood ? Just the contrary. Each nion is governed by Monthly, Quarterly, party knows that he is to gain or to lose and Yearly Meetings, as in England influence, precisely as he manifests the In the United States there are, we be practice of the doctrine he teaches; and Jieve, two Yearly Meetings, one assem- that, I apprehend, so far as Christianity bling at Rhode Island, and the other at is concerned, is charity and forbearance. New York. The latter has been consi- At all events, great apparent good will dered the largest deliberative Society in and cordiality generally exists among the world, as there are usually 1,500 per the clergy of the differents sects. The sons present, all of whom have an equal people of this country manifest great right of speech and suffrage.*

zeal and interest in behalf of religion; I În 1812, a return of the Quaker Meet- honestly think more than any other na

• Dr. Morse's American Geography. * Duncan, Vol. I. p. 205.

+ Congregational Magazine, Vol. 11.

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