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like a task, forgotten? The more we ing in the display of every new attaininquired into the actual condition of the ment which he makes. It lias, accordlower orders, the more we were con- ingly, been their anxious aim to interest vinced, that reading, together with spel- no less than to task,- to make the pupil ling out the meaning of what they read, understand (as much as possible) what was too formidable an attempt to be he is doing, no less than to exact from frequently resorted to by them; and that him its performance,--familiarly to illuseven of those who did read, few had trate, and copiously to exemplify the recourse to the books calculated to give principle, no less than to hear him rethem the most useful instruction, because peat the words of a rule,-to speak to they were unable to understand their him, and by all means to encourage him language; while most resorted to works to speak, in a natural language, which he of a lighter and unfortunately less un- understands, rather than in irksome exceptionable kind, which they found technicalities, which the pedant might it not so difficult to comprehend. We approve,--to keep him while in school therefore felt an extremely strong not only constantly, but actively, eneranxiety to give the school more of an getically employed,-- to inspire him with intellectual tone, not only in order to a zeal for excelling in whatever is his enable the pupils better to understand present occupation, (whether it be study what they read there, but also to give or amusement,) and, even where he is them a taste for profitable reading, and incapable of excelling others, still, by make them understand whatever they noticing with approbation every step, should afterwards have occasion to read." however little, which he makes towards - pp. 27, 28.

improvement, 'to delight him with the

consciousness of excelling his former self.” Such were the convictions and spp. 2, 3. the feelings which prompted to that course of zealous and persevering

In carrying these principles into esertion, which has produced the

practice, it has been the constant system of instruction now pure aim of the Directors to remedy sued with so much success in this every defect that could be disschool, and respecting which it is covered in the plan, and to introsaid by an eminent Professor of duce every improvement which the University of Edinburgh, that further experience could suggest. it “ has produced, and is produc

doc. Hence it has happened, that ing an incalculable amount of " no discerning stranger has reprivate happiness and of public peated his visit to their school after good."*

even a short interval, without reThe leading principles by which marking the advance which has the Directors of the Sessional been made, both in the profiSchool have been guided, are thus ciency of individual pupils, and in stated.

the general system of the establish

ment. One of its own former “ In all their arrangements they have

teachers, who had left it only about regarded their youngest pupil, not as a machine, or an irrational animal, that a year and a half before, on a remust be driven, but as an intellectual cent visit to his former charge, was being who may be led; endowed, not astonished to find the fourth class merely with sensation and memory, but with perception, judgment, conscience,

reading a book, which had, at the 'affections, and passions; capable, to a

time when he was in attendance, certain degree, of receiving favourable been exclusively confined to the or unfavourable impressions, of imbibing first or highest, and answering right or wrong sentiments, of acquiring

questions upon it in

onestions upon it in good or bad habits; strongly averse to

m

a manner, application, where its object is unper. which, as he said, we should then ceived or remote, but, on the other hand, have considered as doing credit to ardently curious, and infinitely delight- the most advanced and ablest

boys; while the latter were now * Principles of Elementary Teaching, in two Letters to T. F. Kennedy, Esq.

receiving and fully comprehending M. P., by James Pillans, F.R.S.E. much higher instruction, thạn had

at that time, so far as he knew, our children for ever. Thus we are been even in contemplation.”

bound to make those entrusted to our

care understand, as a revealed truth, that As the Parochial Schools of

by the death of Christ pardon has been Edinburgh originated in Sunday secured to sinners, and to point out to Schools, one of which is still con them the authority upon which we make nected with the Sessional School ;

this statement--to show them no less

clearly, by the same authority, that in two chapters of this volume are

the benefits of his death, no impenitent devoted to that subject, and to sinner can ever have the slightest hope the subject of catechising. After to participate--and to render them well pointing out the inefficiency of the

acquainted with the appointed means by

which these benefits may be made availpresent method of learning the able to themselves.”-- pp. 56, 57. catechism by rote, the pupil not having any ideas, or at least, any

y The plan of catechetical instrucjust ideas of its meaning, the wri. ter proceeds to show, that it is not

ition in the Sessional School is to only most desirable, but that it is

• interrogate the children viva voce practicable, to make even a child

upon the answers which have been understand the leading truths of

repeated, first, as to the meaning

of the words, and then as to the religion. He says,

doctrines or facts contained in them, 66 It may be asked, "What is meant considered both individually, and by making a child understand the truths in their connexion with other docof religion ? Hath not an Apostle actrines and facts, which may tend knowledged, that great is the mystery to illustrato of godliness, and what he found to be

to illustrate them.“ In this manner mystery shall we pretend to make plain is frequently opened up a wide field even to the conceptions of children? of illustration and information, of Such questions we admit to be at once

peculiar service to those who are pertinent and highly important. In order to answer them, it will be necessary to

already well acquainted with the keep in recollection, that there are more catechism and its more immediate senses than one, in which we may be bearings, affording them an agreesaid to understand a thing. We are said, able variety, making the Scripture for example, to understand the narrative

at once more plain and more pleasof any remarkable phenomenon, when we have received a just conception of

ing to them, and giving them genethe appearances described, though neither ral habits of attention and interest, ourselves nor the narrator have the with regard to every thing, which slightest notion of the cause of these

se they either read or hear. No one, appearances. A physician is said to understand his profession, when he knows

who has not bimself practised this the circumstances, under which certain method of instruction, either with remedies ought to be applied, in order to regard to religious or general knoweffect a cure, and the method of their

ledge, can have an adequate conapplication, though he may not in many cases be able to account for the mode

ception of the extent of informaof their operation. We may, in short, tion, which may, in this most perfectly understand a thing, in so far pleasing of all shapes, be comas we have any concern in it, while, in

municated, and permanently re

muni other respects, it is itself involved in obscurity. This is a distinction, which tained." cannot be too much attended to in the The account of the system of religious instruction of children, and we instruction pursued in the Sessional might also add, of those of riper years, for all in this imperfect state are at best Daily School, is divided into the but grown children. We ought ever to following heads,--directors, 'masremember, that, in the department of 'ter, monitors, classification, emureligion, no less than of nature, there

lation, rewards, punishments, ex

loti are secret things that belong unto the Lord our God, as well as things which planatory system, reading, and are revealed, that belong unto us and spelling, daily religious exercises,

grammar, writing, arithmetic, and said profanely, hesitates not to pronounce geography.

an EVANGELICAL THEOCRACY!!! We earnestly recommend to the “On occasion of a visit to this semiattention of our readers, especially nary by a royal chaplain, Mr, Malan

says, 'This pious and excellent man came of those who are interested in edun

to me, evidently much affected, and with

to cation, the principles stated under tears in his eyes, Oh! it is most admira. each of these heads, and the plan ble,' he exclaimed with emotion, it is of discipline founded upon them. truly most astonishing, and all to the In his observations upon the much

glory of God.' I could never have ima

gined it, and I am happy to have seen contested question of emulation, and heard it myself.'- What has hapthe author appears to us to have pened ?' said I. 'I first went, he retaken the just medium between the plied, to that dear little child, who is the conflicting opinions. We extract there to be a lowest and a highest ?]

lowest in the school,' [query," how comes the following just and sprightly, and I said to him, even with an appearthough rather too severe remarks ance of harshness and severity, So you upon this subiect, which will are the lowest, my child."- Yes, Sir.'

he replied with candour and modesty. amuse and inform our readers,

And are you not ashamed,' added I in 6. By some, indeed, we are aware, the same tone.'-. ' Sir,' said this poor emulation itself, the fundamental prin- child with wonderful calmness, I assure ciple of all this arrangement, has been you that it is not my fault: I do all that loudly condemned, as one which is utterly is at present in my power; but God has malignant and diabolical, and ought not not yet given me a good memory.'-- I only to be banished from every seminary could no nothing but silently embrace of education, but entirely extirpated him,' [had this embrace no tendency to from the human soul. The opponents of excite emulation ?] ‘for he had melted the exercise of this principle may now my heart. Upon leaving the amiable be divided into two classes ; those, who boy who was lowest, I went to the boy oppose it upon moral grounds, and as at the top of the class, and said to him, contrary to the true dignity of man; and Well, my friend, you occupy the highest those, who oppose it as contrary to the place. It is a post of honour and glory: genuine spirit of Christianity or evan- 1 congratulate you on your attainment.' gelism. The former contend, that the Upon this the modest youth fixed his student should require no other stimulus, eyes upon the ground, and said with an than the pure and unmingled love of air of embarrassment, Sir, I am not enknowledge and of duty; and that emu- titled to any praise: all the glory belongs lation is a base alloy, which at the same to God: and, if I relaxed my efforts, I time genders envy, hatred, malice, and should sin against him. After telling all uncharitableness. The opinions of us, that these answers were certainly the latter, who contend that this prin- most satisfactory,' the reverend gentleciple is not only immoral, but peculiarly man proceeds to detail another scene, in unchristian and unevangelical, are, we which all the boys at once threw up the presume, to be gathered from a letter medals, which they had formerly oblately published, addressed by the Rev, taiped, (and no wonder, seeing they were Cæsar Malan of Geneva, to Mr. Camp- no longer regarded as marks of honour bell of Carbrook, in which, according to by him who conferred them) assigning Mr. Campbell, Mr. Malan seems to have as their reason, it is the glory of God set this question at rest!! From the that we are anxious to obtain.' What a high pretensions, with which this letter contrast, we readily acknowledge, do has thus been usbered into the world, such scenes as these present to the more and the importance which is justly at- simple and natural ones, of which alone tached to every objection alleged to be Market Street can boast! But, to the founded on religious principles, we may following incident our own seminary, perhaps be pardoned, for paying more with all its odious emulation, can contriattention to this performance, than its bute innumerable parallels. 'I witown intrinsic merits may seem to warrant; nessed in my school, what is rarely to and for transcribing one of those scenes, be met with in colleges conducted on which, we presume, are understood - to worldly principles, namely, during the have set this question at rest,' and are hours of recreation, a boy who was fursaid to have occurred in a seminary, ther advanced, retiring to a corner of , which its teacher, in our opinion, some. the school, 'or of the play-ground, and what presumptuously, we had almost patiently and kindly teaching one or gress.'

two others, who had not made such pro- “ With regard to the feelings of envy,

hatred, &c. which are said to be gen“For ourselves we very much incline dered by the exercise of emulation, we to the opinion, that 'a cook might as are far from denying, that this principle, well resolve to make bread without fer like every other, is liable to abuse, and mentation, as a pedagogue to carry on may, under improper management, proschool without emulation : it must be a duce the effects ascribed to it. But we sad doughy lump without this vivifying can, from experience, with confidence principle. What might be the state of pronounce, that these are not its necesthis question, if man, in his present im sary fruits. Even in the very moment perfect condition, and particularly in its of the most ardent competition, it has earlier stages, stood in need of no addi been our pleasure to witness, times with. tional incentive to the pursuit of know out number, acts of the most generous ledge or the practice of virtue, than the and disinterested nature. Some of these, pure love of either,-it is very unneces which had escaped our own observation, sary to inquire. Surely no one will con or been treated as matters of daily octend, that this is now his actual condi currence, have not failed to attract and tion. And, in such circumstances, can draw forth the admiration of strangers. it be wise in him to deny either to him Who, too, are the fondest and most inself, or to those entrusted to his charge, separable companions at play hours, but the aid of any of those additional stimuli, those, who, in their hours of business, which Providence in mercy proffers tó most strenuously resist each others presupply this natural imperfection ? Or, tepsions ? Such a spectacle may excite, which of those incentives is more noble in the breast of the theoretical speculaor animating, than the ardent desire im tor, the like feelings of wonder, that planted in our bosom of rising superior arise to the clown, on seeing the friendly to our fellows? How many slumbering intercourse of two barristers, who, but faculties has not this living principle the moment before, appeared to him to roused into exertion! To how many have contracted a' deadly quarrel. But days of toil and waking nights—to how it is familiar to all who have had the hapmany splendid discoveries and inventions piness to be educated at a well regulated

to how many deeds of virtue and ex- school. To many such we may appeal, ploits of heroism-to how much indivi. whether, in those who struggled hard to dual happiness and social improvement, tear the 'laurels from their own youthful has it not given birth! In place of being brows, they have not found their warmest a base and sordid passion, is it not one and their steadiest friends through life: which burns brightest in the noblest and most generous souls? Men may theo. Their early friends, friends of their evil retically speak and write against it; but day; he, and he only, who is incapable of ex. Friends in their mirth, friends in their cellence, will ever refuse its aid. By misery too; any attempt to suppress it, we may turn Friends given by God in mercy and in it into a less pure channel than that in love; which nature intended it to flow; but Their counsellors, their comforters, and we can never entirely arrest its course. guides ; We are disposed entirely to rely on the Their joy in grief, their second bliss in joy; truth of the statements which Mr. Malan Companions of their young desires; in has given, and on the sincerity of the in- doubt ferences which he has himself drawn Their oracles: their wings in biglı pursuit.' from them. But will any man, except Mr, Malan himself, and his correspon- All this, however, we confess, must go dent, believe, that this principle has been for nothing, if it be true, as is alleged, banished from the school at Geneva ? that the voice of Scripture utterly conNay, he himself speaks of an evan- demns the principle ? But where is it gelical emulation, and we read, as has that such condemnation has been probeen already stated, of higher and lower nounced ? Mr. Malan's correspondent, boys. We believe there is scarcely an indeed, our friend Mr. Campbell, sweepindividual, that has read this reverend ingly tells us, that "the Apostle Paul exgentleman's statement, on whose mind it pressly proscribed emulation as one of has not left the same impression as upon the works of the flesh. Butif the Aposour own that there is in that school no tle, in the passage referred to, is to be want of emulation : not indeed that noble considered as proscribing under the word and generous principle, which we have 'emulation' all generous rivalry, as well been attempting to advocate, but one of may he be supposed to have condemned, the basest and most degrading kind, under the word "wrath,' in the same which it is unnecessary to characterize. passage, all just and virtuous indignation,

and under the term variance,' all dif- system, are to produce habits ference in sentiment, however honest of attention and thought, to inand sincere. Nor, assuredly, is it in the practice of the great Apostle, that we

terest the minds of the pupils shall find any proscription of this prin. in their studies, and to impart to ciple. No man knew better than he, its them general and useful knowpredominance over the human soul, or ledge, or rather to excite them to ever wielded it more powerfully towards the accomplishment of his own important ga

gather it for themselves. The ends. He tells us himself the use, which chief means employed for this he made of it, in his attempt to convert purpose are the explanatory meand to save his own countrymen, by thod of instruction through the twitting them with the superior privileges, which the Gentiles, whom they

medium of the reading lessons. despised, were now earning to them “Its object is threefold: first, To renselves. With an evident reference to a der more easy and pleasing the acquisi. passage in one of their prophets, re- tion of the mechanical art of reading; cently quoted by him, which contains the secondly, To turn to advantage the parfollowing remarkable expression recog- ticular instruction contained in every nising the same principle, I will provoke individual passage which is read ; and, you to jealousy by them which are no above all, thirdly, To give the pupil, people;' the Apostle proceeds, “I say by means of a minute analysis of each then, Have they stumbled that they passage, a general command of his own should fall? God forbid ! But rather language. through their fall salvation is come unto "It is of great importance to the prothe Gentiles, for to provoke them to jealousy. per understanding of the method, that For I speak to you, Gentiles, inasmuch all these objects should be kept disas I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I tinctly in view. With regard to the first, magnify mine Office: if by any means I no one, who has not witnessed the may provoke to emulation them which were scheme in operation, can well imagine my flesh, and might save some of them.' the animation and energy wbich it inNor can any thing exceed the skill, with spires. It is the constant remark of which he employs the like principle, in almost every stranger who visits the the management of his various churches. Sessional School, that its pupils have To the Macedonians he boasts of the not at all the ordinary appearance of forwardness of the church at Corinth to school-boys doomed to an unwilling task, contribute for the saints; while, to the but rather the happy faces of children latter, he is careful to communicate this at their sports. This distinction is chiefly boast, in order that they may show them to be attributed to that part of the selves worthy of it. I know,' says he system of which we are here treating; to the Corinthians, the forwardness of by which, in place of harassing the your mind, for which I boast of you to pupil with a mere mechanical routine them of Macedonia, that Achaia was of sounds and technicalities, his attention ready a year ago : and your faith hath is excited, his curiosity is gratified, and provoked very many. Yet have I sent his fancy is amused. the brethren, lest our boasting of you In the second place, when proper books should be in vain in this behalf; that, as are put into the hands of the scholars, I have said, ye may be ready: lest haply every article, which they read, may be if they of Macedonia come with me, and made the means, not only of forming find you unprepared, we, that we say not in their youthful minds the invaluable YE, should be ashamed in this same con- habit of attention, but also of commu. fident boasting. What a contrast does nicating to them, along with facility tact like this, founded on a thorough in the art of reading, much informaknowledge of human nature, exhibit, to tion, which is both adapted to their prethe visionary schemes, which are our pre- sent age, and may be of use to them for sent object of consideration !"-pp. 112 the rest of their lives.”-pp. 142, 143. - 120.

With regard to the third object, The limits of our present article the teacher will not allow us to do more than «Will not consider it enough that the to notice shortly one other topic child may have, from the context or

the Explanatory System. It otherwise, formed a general notion of will be seen, from a passage,

are the meaning of a whole passage, but

will also, with a view to future exigenwe have already quoted, that eies, direct his attention to the full the chief objects of Mr. Wood's force and signification of the particular

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