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my lips would this day have been mute, and the same illustrious voice which gave utterance to your filial emotions over their illustrious graves, would have spoken also, for you, over him who shared their earthly labours,—-enjoyed their friendship, and has now gone to share their last repose, and their imperishable remembrance.
There is not throughout the world, a friend of liberty, who has not dropped his head, when he has heard that Lafayette is no more. Poland, Italy, Greece, Spain, Ireland, the South American Republics,-every country where man is struggling to recover his birthright, has lost a benefactor, a patron in Lafayette.
But you, young men, at whose command I speak,-for you, a bright and particular lodestar is henceforward fixed in the front of heaven. What young man that reflects on the history of Lafayette,-that sees him, in the morning of his days, the associate of sages,—the friend of Washington,but will start with new vigour, on the path of duty and renown?
And what was it, fellow-citizens, which gave to our Lafayette his spotless fame?-The love of liberty. What has consecrated his memory, in the hearts of good men?—The love of liberty! What nerved his youthful arm with strength, and inspired him, in the morning of his days, with sagacity and counsel ?– The living love of liberty. To what did he sacrifice power, and rank, and country, and freedom itself?_ To the horror of licentiousness ;-to the sanctity of plighted faith, to the love of liberty protected by law. Thus the great principle of your revolutionary fathers, of your pilgrim sires, the great principle of the age, was the rule of his life: The love of Liberty protected by Law.
You have now assembled within these renowned walls, to perform the last duties of respect and love, -on the birthday of your benefactor, beneath that roof which has resounded, of old, with the master voices of American renown. The spirit of the departed is in high communion with the spirit of the place ;—the temple worthy of the new name which we now behold inscribed on its walls.
Listen, Americans, to the lesson, which seems borne to us on the very air we breathe, while we perform these dutiful rights.-Ye winds, that wafted the pilgrims to the lands of promise, fan, in their children's hearts, the love of freedom! Blood which our fathers shed, cry from the ground ;-echoing arches of this renowned hall, whisper back the voices
of other days;-glorious Washington! break the long silence of that votive canvass ;*-speak, speak, marble lips ;*-teach us THE LOVE OF LIBERTY PROTECTED BY Law!
EXERCISE LX.-MILTON'S LINES TO HIS FATHER.— Translation
by Cowper. [The tones of reverence and of tenderness, pervade the following passage : their effect on the voice, is to produce a low or a high note, as either predominates,-to soften and subdue the utterance, and to render it slow in rate.]
No! howsoe'er the semblance thou assume
moved, inclines her beauteous head,
* Referring to the portrait of Washington, and the bust of Lafayette which adorn the hall.
And offers me the lip, if, dull of heart,
Go, now, and gather dross, ye sordid minds
Detested foes !
But thou, my Father! since to render thanks
EXERCISE LXI.-APPEAL FOR THE REFORM BILL.-Lord
Brougham. [The prevailing tone of appeal in declamation, gives, -as in the following instance, increased earnestness and vividness of utterance,-a more fervent tone, and a more forcible style of action, than in common declamatory harangues.]
I look upon all the growths of popular dissatisfaction,whether in the press, or in unions, in associations, or leagues against the exchequer, or secret societies,-as monstrous things bred out of the corruption of the present representation of the people. When it has been asked what has given birth to them, the answer is at hand. Trust me, it is no other power than that which called together the volunteers
of Ireland in 1782. Trust me, it is no other than that which engendered the Catholic Association. Trust me, it is justice withheld, rights refused, wrongs perpetrated; the folly of believing that men can be governed against their will; the idiotey of supposing that the inhabitants of England are to be treated like the savages of the South Sea islands,the frenzy of assuming that you can govern men like children or like savages.
These it is which have peopled the country with these noxious growths,—that have made the rank soil shoot up all these prodigious things, which scare and fright us from our propriety. These things have been seen; but our fears have made us take a wrong course; and instead of making us fling away the parent, they have made us wage a futile, endless, and fatal war with her gigantic offspring. We have been going on, like those before us, in doing wrong; and our. unholy husbandry it is that has induced us to sow injustice, and thence to reap disaffection.
My lords, I use no language of intimidation. We stand now on the brink of a great event. We are now on the eve of the decision of this great measure; and it behoves you to consider, when men tell you that you should not heed clamours, that there is no worse folly,—that there is no meaner, baser, more despicable kind of fear, than for men of a frame of mind that allows the weight of reflection and the power of reason, to be afraid of being accused of fear.
My lords, I am now speaking in the same hall where your lordships sat in the year 1828; and in that hall, though not quite in so regular manner as this, I heard the same argument urged for the purpose of preventing your lordships from liberating the Catholics. That argument did prevent that liberation. It was said that it was a troublous time,—that there was much clamour abroad ;—and for fear of being thought to yield to intimidation you shut your ears to the voice of reason. The summer passed over. Autumn came on, with her fruits and her abundance; but she brought not the precious gift of domestic peace. The rage of popular feeling went on; and the election of a Catholic member to sit in a protestant House of Commons took place. Winter bound the earth in its chains, but it bound not the sea of Irish agitation; for its surge dashed more furiously than ever against the Constitution. Then spring opened its season, but unaccompanied by its wonted harmony; for it had no ethereal mildness, there being at that moment in Ireland much fiercer agitation than before, and ten thousand times more reason for fear, than in the preceding July.
And what did your lordships do, when the only change that had taken place in those seven or eight months, was increase of tumult, augmentation of danger, and great embarrassment of all contingent circumstances? What did your lordships do? Wisely, patriotically, firmly, you saved your country ;-you
refused any longer to listen to the senseless cuckoo-note of those who said, "Do not emancipate them; for, if you do, it will be through intimidation.' ; But, at the same time, I am bound to say, that if you had not listened to these reasons, year after year, for about the twenty preceding years, that measure would have been attended with a tenfold more beneficial effect than when, blessed be God! it did pass, through the instrumentality of the noble Duke, of whom I will say, that however highly I hold his military achievements, still more highly do I think of his achievements in favour of the Catholics.
And now, my lords, to apply this branch of history,- for history it has become,—to the present time. My lords, you are now placed in this dilemma. If you refuse reform now, under the foolish notion of being afraid, you may live to see something of which wise men will really be afraid. You may have to live among the hearts of an alienated people, you may have to live among tens of thousands who hate you, -you may have to live when all men shall be leagued against you; for it is you alone that stand between them and their wishes.
EXERCISE LXII.-SCENE FROM THE ROSE OF ARRAGON.
Knowles. Speakers - Ruphino, Alasco, Velasquez, Almagro and other Peasants. [See remarks on previous dialogues, of serious character.]
Ruph. Where loitered you upon your journey home?
Alas. I took a circuit home to see my friends,
You 're a great man