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also the cause of the common error in this sound, which consists in substituting the sound of a in far, or that of o in orb, for that of o in done, and prolonging unduly the first sound of the diphthong, causing a broad and drawling sound; thus, Pawnd, tawn, for pound, town.
The local error of New England, substitutes for the initial sound of this diphthong, that of a in at, or of e in met; thus, Păund, tăwn, for pound, town.
How vow now thou, loud cloud cow gown, count house town clown, scowl fowl mouth out, our ground found sound, round souse mouse bounce, rebound resound astound confound, coward cowering lowering scouring, account recount surmount boundary, poundage hourly cowl growling.
These may be conveniently arranged according to the organs with which they are articulated.
Labial Letters. Mute labials, B, P; aspirated labials, F, PH, GH, as in Laugh, V; liquid labial, M; vocal labial, W.
The common defect in the articulation of these sounds, is a want of force in the compression and opening of the lips.
In practising the following words, the utmost force and clearness of sound, should be given to the labial letters.
B-Bay bad bar ball bee, bet bile bit bore bog, boon bush bust by blab, swab babe barb glebe web, imbibe bib globe rob bull, babbler bubbling double trouble unblamed, unblameable peaceably abominable hubbub bulbous.
P,-Pay pad par pall peat pet, pile pit pore pod poor push, pus pie ape pope pap harp, creep step pipe pip grope pop, pulp topple supple grappling uncropped palpably.
F, PH, GH,--Fay fat, far fall, fie fee, fed file, fin fore, foss fool, fuss safe, staff wharf, fife thief, whiff oaf, off hoof, huff laugh, caliph baffle, offing sulphur, laugh’dst fifer, chaffering quaffed, triumph draught.
V,–Vane van vaunt, vie veer velvet, vile voglie volley, cave cove sleeve, helve dive live, grove love of, valve vivify revive, surviving valvular reviv'dst.
M,-May mat mark malt, mien men mile mist, moan mop moon must, my aim ham harm, qualm seem hem mime, hymn home doom come, lime maim mamma! mummy, roaming commencement monument humbly, murmurs maimed humm'st humm’dst.
W,-Wane wail way wag war, wall wad we wine, win wo wot won beware, away bewail anwed unwashed.
Dental Letters. Mute, D, T ;-Lisping, TH, as in Thin; TH, as in Thine; Aspirated, J, G soft; CH, as in Church, SH sharp, as in Shape; TI, as in Nation ; CI, as in Gracious; CE, as in Ocean ;-SH flat, or SI, SU, &c., as in Occasion, Division, Leisure ;-Sibilant, or hissing, s sharp and C soft, as in Sauce;-S flat, as in Was; Z, as in Haze.
0,-Day daw dart dash die din, deem den dome don dub duke, laid awed hard mad lied lid, feed fed mowed rod cud denude, deduce deduct added addled oddly wedded, called adds dubb'dst doubled dared dastard.
T,-Tame tar, tall tap, teeth tent, tithe twit, titter tome, top too, tutor tut, tight taught, tête-a-tête tart, tat cat, hot coat, total foot, destitute stutter, lightest tighten'dst, triturate capitulate, tittered hurt'st.
TH sharp,-Thane thank thaw, theory thigh thin, thorn threw throw, thrust thirsty seath, breath thrust
eth north, youth growth worth, truths swath youths, hearths oath cloths.
T'H flat,—They that thy though, thee then therefore swathe, paths seethe sithe blithe, tithe baths beneath oaths, thither, underneath bathes swathes.
J and G soft,-Jay genius gentle jam jar, jet jeer gesture jilt jimp, giant gibbet jolt jostle just, gymnic gyve gypsy joy age, liege edge budge judge judgedst.
CH soft,-Chair chat charm chalk check chine, chin churn chirp hatch march watch, each switch scorch birchen satchel beechen, twitching touchedst.
SH sharp, TI, CI, &c.—Shame shad, shark shawl, sheen shed, shine shin, show shot, shoe shrub, shroud shrink, shrive shrivel, shrine sash, marsh swash, mesh wish, brush push, splashing marshy, ration completion, discretion contrition, promotion revolution, disputatious—[ce and ci sounding sh:] herbaceous, ocean contumacious, specious delicious—[ci sounding she:] enunciation pronunciation, association partiality.
SH flat,—Derision abrasion adhesion, explosion confusion roseate, azure osier vision, leisure seizure treasure, pleasure occasion collision.
S sharp, and C soft-Say sad salt saunter, see cease set slice, sister cistern cider soak, sod source sorcery sue, suds system ace pass, salts farce fleece suppress, ice assistance police miss, twice jocose toss juice, sluice fuss distress mists, hosts listenest listlessly interstice, solstice sayest assassin assassinates, assassinatest assassinatedst sustainest designest, presidest desistedst rests seducest.
S flat, Z,-Phases houses fantasm buzzes gales, homes dives zany breezes zebra, maze was has prizes dissolves, observes hussars dismays huzzas dismembers, disarms disburdens husbands philosophical disease, bedizens roses daisies venison horizon.
Palatic Letters. K, as in Key: C hard, as in Cue: Ch, as in Chorus : Q, as in Queen : Kail cane quaint keel queer key, quid cone quote cup cube cake, squeak elk pike kick sick attack, quack quake crowd crust clay cloy, dirk work bulk skulk crack cracked, cracks crackst crack’dst crackling choral archives, architecture archangel quicker.
G hard, as in Gag: Gay gave, gap guard, gall ghost, green go, gone gulp, plague hag, bog jug, egg gargle, giggle gurgle, ogle glimpse, gray gross.
Semi-palatic Letter, or initial Y, as in Ye. Yare yest yon, young yonder your, you youth yawl.
Aspirated or Breathing Letter. H, as in Hail: Hay hat harm hall, heel head high hit, home hot horse hoot, hue hut hyphen behave, behest hence when why, who where wheat what, wherefore whirl whence vehement, annihilate human behemoth vehicle.
Nasal Letters. N, as in No: Nay nap gnarl knee net, nice nib note
fain can barn keen ken, line sin own on hewn, grain noise now noun winnow.
NG, as in Singing; N, as in Finger: N, as in Think; N, as in Concave; N, as in Conquest.
Gang king sprung length strength bank, sink being nothing writing hanging bringing, robbing singing conquer prolong concourse concubine, extinct distinction thank banquet sunk ink, thinks thinkest crank angle English congress, anger congregate anguish extinguish unguent languid.
Lingual Letters. L, as in Lull: Lay lee, lie lo, loo law, lad lark, toll hale, all call, well weal, will wool, hull lowly, lily lullaby.
R initial, or before a vowel,* as in Rude. Ray rat, raw wry, pray brass, crape green, trait shrug, throw root, rust rural, around enrich, rebel Roman, roll rot, flowery contrary, library rest, rhinoceros roaring, rearing rushest, torrent dreary, briery priory, cruel truly, protrude.
R final, or before a consonant, as in Air, far, farm. Hare are ore, ire our ear, harm form burn, eternal fern dark, farm marl furl, hurl whirl her, formal borne born, murmur far former, horn torpor stork, fork ford hoard, lord force horse, ark dart barter, herd learn arm, pearl world servant, border merchant adore, demure expire appear.
Exercise combining both Rs. Rarely rear roar error, horror roared reared warrior, terror regular irregular brier, prior truer.
These words should be articulated with great precision and energy, and the distinction of sound, in the two Rs, carefully observed. Note.—
The common errors in the sounds of this letter, are the substitution of the hard for the soft r; thus, warr for war ; the entire omission of the letter, as in wawm, for warm, the protrusion of the hard sound after a consonant; thus, derread for dread. Nothing is more
* Articulated by a forcible trill of the tongue against the upper gum, forming a harsh sound, which may be denominated “hard R. Note. This sound should never be prolonged into a roll.'
In the formation of this sound, which is much softer, the tongue bends inward in the mouth, and the vibration is very slight. This sound may be distinguished as 'soft' R.
The pupil should be trained, first, to give the perfect sound of the hard R, then that of the soft, then to articulate the two sounds, alternately, in rapid succession.