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mencing with the sound of a in father, (properly a in at,) and diminishing to that of long e. These two sounds must be exactly proportioned, and nicely blended.
I'sle time, mile vile, vine dine, life my, knife sign, mine try, light child, bind thyme, smite right, wild ice, slice tide, glide chyle, bile mind, find repine, consign resign, beguile smile, pile might, delight fire, desire concise, style chyme, lyre dryad.
Same sound unaccented : Diagonal biennial, diæresis tiara, triennial diameter, infantile camomile, gentile pantomime.
I, as in Pin: Y, as in Hymn.
The error commonly made in this sound, is that of obscuring it by careless articulation, so that it is made to resemble in some degree the sound of a in fate, or of ai in fail; thus, Tain for tin, faish for fish.*
The true sound of i short, is very nearly, though not exactly, that of e in me, much shortened.
Sìn hill prím, pit wish fill, dim din skin, whim fit will, till sill since, prince wince quince, rinse wit sit, lit win bid, rid mince rill, till rip whip, sip skip tip, fib rib still, mystical symptom sympathy, mystery hypo
Same sound unaccented: Historical histrionic minutely, vivacity discreet disparity, bedrid outfit sawmill.
0, as in No: Oa, as in Oak: Ou, as in Course : Ow,
as in Own, The 'first' sound of o, in Walker's notation. The errors in the sound of this letter, are, substituting
* It is impossible to reduce this error to an exact spelling; and the above attempt to represent it, is unavoidably a caricature rather than a copy. A true idea of the error intended may, however, be formed, by due allowance, from the notation used above.
for it the o of nor ; as in Fôrce for force; sôrce for source, &c. shortening this sound of its proper length, as in hom for home, whol for whole, &c.
This is properly the longest vowel in our language, and should receive great length of sound.
Oh hò óld hòme, bone cone tone stone, hope hold note coat, coach source sword recourse, perforce oats oaten boat, doat moat rote towards, sloth scroll troll drollery, ford forge bronze hoarse, port fort sport torn, disown sown cloak soak, soul toll sofa soda, shoulder soldier sole wholly, solely wholesome wholesale votary.
The same sound unaccented : Opinion donation domestic molest, protect proceed intonation desolate, melody custody eloquence innocence.
O, as in Move: Oo, as in Mood : U, as in True.
The errors which commonly occur in this sound, arise from a want of discrimination in the length of the sound, as affected by the consonant which follows it. Dental letters, following this sound of o, shorten it, and liquids, following it, give it length. An error in the sound of ru takes place in some words, thus ryuin for ruin; the 'first' sound of u being given, instead of the 'third,' or that of oo in mood.
Pròve mood rùle lose tool, boom moon rood behoove true, broom remove fruit group bosom, boom woo druid swoon groove, imbrue canoe gamboge gloom smooth, brutal cool doom pool poor, moor boor who tomb caisson, rude rural truant fruitless prudent.
O, as in Nor.
The error to be avoided in this sound, is that of making it nearly the same with the o of the word no, or dividing the sound into two parts, of which the first
is the a of no, and the second that of u in up, or of a in at; thus, noar for nor.
Or òrb cord sórt short storm, form horn scorn corn thorn cork, fork north torch horse lord resort, remorse unhorse retort contortion distorted mortal, morsel mortgage mortar torture forfeit formal, fortune sort torment coral born forlorn.
The same sound unaccented: Forbear tormenting formality mortality sortie formation ornamental.
0, as in Not. The 'fourth'sound of o, in Walker's notation. The common error in the formation of this sound, is, as in the above examples, the substituting of o in no, or of a double sound formed by o in no, and u in up, or a in at; thus Lost or loast for lost. This sound should be carefully avoided, in this and the above classes of examples, as a striking mark of vulgarity or carelessness. There is also the opposite error of making the 'fourth' sound of o nearly like the “fourth’sound of a; thus, Gat, clack, &c. for got, clock, &c.
Odd rob mob,* dog log bog, not rot dot, loss boss toss, cross Boston sob, prop fog croft, loft soft clod, doff costly god, goddess nod lofty, glossy dross fossil, foster nostage softness.
The same sound unaccented : Obtain occur commend, documentary prostration population, mammoth tremor algor.
O, as in Done. The same with the second sound of u, or that of u in tub, up, &c.
The fault, in the formation of this sound, is the substituting for it the o of smoke, that of nor, or that of not.
• The inflections may now be supplied by the voice of the reader.
Come comrade combat none, nothing love comely word, world worm wont scourge, none such worship comfit colander, colonel bombard (noun) bombast (n.) compass, demon sovereign wonted sovereignty.
U, as in Tube, mute, foc. : Eu, as in Eulogy: Ew, as in Ewe: Ui, as in Suit : Iew, as in View; and Eau, as in Beauty. The first' sound of u, in Walker's notation.
The errors common in this sound, are the substituting for it that of u in full or o in move ; thus, toon for tune, and commencing the sound of u with that of a, instead of e; thus, tayoon for tune.
Use cure lure tune dupe, fume useful human humour feud, hew few dew pew mew, new due cue sue blue, lubricate tumid cubic stupid constitution, institution revolution student studious duke, ducal superable supreme superior conclude, resume consume renew review beautiful, beauteous lucid luminary stupor fluid, importune opportunity mutual plural lurid, during duration dewy lunar lunatic, lunacy endure assume astute confute.
The same sound unaccented : Lucubration educate articulate stipulate stimulate, singularly regular confluence calculate emulate, feature nature fortune.
U, as in Tub.
There is sometimes an error heard in this sound, which makes it seem to resemble o in on; thus, onder for under; and another, which cannot be represented to the eye, but which gives this vowel a sound which is guttural, (formed too deep in the throat,) and with too wide an opening of the organs. This sound approaches, though very slightly, to the o of on: it should be carefully avoided, as uncouth and vulgar,
Up under tun run gun dub, cub rub dug tug mug sup, duck cluck church such clutch much, shrub glut strut nut nun hum, buzz purr cut puff gruff muff, dull mull cull clung gulf gulp, tuft trust tusk musk hurl skulk, skull unfurl churl custard bulge husky.
The same sound unaccented : Uptake undo unseal sackbut conduct log-hut.
U, as in Bull
, full, &c. : 0, as in Wolf, took, &c. The third ' sound of u, in Walker's notation.
An error sometimes heard in this sound, is that of obscuring it, by hastening over it, and dwelling too much on the consonant which follows it. This error cannot be exactly represented : it can only be generally described as impairing the true and clear sound of the letter.
Pull bush, push puss, put bull-dog, fuller wolfish, foot wood, would could, should pulley, pulpit cushion, cuckoo woman, sugar woollen, withstood wool, hood stood good.
SOUNDS OF DIPHTHONGS.
Oi and Oy, as in Oil and Boy. The common errors in this sound, arise from a want of attention to the true sound of the initial letter of the diphthong, which is the o of not, and not that of no. Hence the faulty sound of oil, boy, for oil, boy. A worse error, though less frequent, is that of pronouncing this diphthong like the letter i ; thus, ile for oil.
Boil coil foil, toil soil coy, toy joy hoy, rejoice broil spoil, void doit coin, loin joint hoist, moist joist voice, oily joyful coinage, poise noise employ, embroil appoint avoid, alloy recoil turmoil.
Ou, as in Pound: Ow, as in Down. The neglect of the initial letter of the diphthong, iş