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Spirit, under the appropriate image of a dove, and accompanied by a voice from heaven declaratory of that affection.*
Thirdly, the Spirit signifies a divine impulse, or light, or voice, or word, transmitted from above, either through Christ, who is the Word of God, or by some other channel. Mark xi. 36. - David himself said by the Holy Ghost.' Acts i. 16. the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas.' xxviii. 25. well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet.' Heb. iii. 7. "wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith, To-day if ye will hear his voice,' &c. ix. 8. the Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest.' x. 15. "whereof the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us.' 2 Pet. i. 21. holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.' Luke ii. 25, 26. “the Holy Ghost was upon him : and it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost-,' It appears to me, that these and similar passages cannot be considered as referring to the express person of the Spirit, both because the Spirit was not yet given, and because Christ alone, as has been said before, is properly speaking, and in a primary sense, the Word of
* ....... In likeness of a dove
The Spirit descended, while the Father's voice
Paradise Regained, 1. 30. In another part of the same book, Milton intimates an uncertainty respecting the real signification of the descent of the Holy Spirit, which is very consistent with the besitating manner in which he comments on the passage in this treatise.
........ thence on his head
God, and the Prophet of the Church ; though. God at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,' Heb. i. 1. whence it appears that he did not speak by the Holy Spirit alone, unless the term be understood in the signification which I have proposed, and in a much wider sense than was subsequently attributed to it. Hence, 1 Pet. i. 11. - searching what or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them'that is, in the prophets did signify,' must either be understood of Christ himself, -as iii. 18, 19. quickened by the Spirit, by which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison,'—or it must be understood of the Spirit which supplied the place of Christ the Word and the Chief Prophet.
Lastly, the Spirit signifies the person itself of the Holy Spirit, or its symbol. Matt. iï. 16. Mark i. 10. • he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him.' Luke iii. 22. in a bodily shape like a dove.' John i. 32, 33. like a dove.' Nor let it be objected, that a dove is not a person ; for an intelligent substance, under any form whatever, is a person ; as for instance, the four living creatures seen in Ezekiel's vision, ch. i. John xiv. 16, 17. 6 another Comforter. See also v. 26. xv. 26. xvi. 7, 13. xx. 22. he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost,'—which was a kind of symbol, and sure pledge of that promise, the fulfilment of which is recorded Acts ii. 2-4, 33. • having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this.' Matt. xxviii. 19.
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' Acts xv. 28. it seemed good to
the Holy Ghost.' Rom. viii. 16. the Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit.' v. 26. it helpeth our infirmities..... it maketh intercession for us.' Eph. i. 13, 14. có Tiv>uaTu có ai js = duy độòa6 v• ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise which (who, Whitby, Macknight) is the earnest of our inheritance. iv. 30. “grieve not the Holy Spirit of God.'
Lastly, it signifies the donation of the Spirit itself, and of its attendant gifts. John vii. 39. • but this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive ; for the Holy Ghost was not yet given.' Matt. iii. 11. «he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire.' See also Acts i. 5. and xi. 16. 1 Thess. v. 19. quench not the Spirit.'
Who this Holy Spirit is, and whence he comes, and what are his offices, no one has taught us more explicitly than the Son of God himself. Matt. x. 20.
it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you.' Luke xi. 13. how much more shall your beavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him.' xxiv. 49. behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you ; but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.' John xiv. 16, 17. “I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth.' v. 26. the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name.' xv. 26. the Comforter, whom I will send unto you from the Father,.....which proceedeth froin the Father, he shall testify of me.' xvi. 7. • I will send him unto you.' v. 8. when he is come, he will reprove VOL. I.
the world—.' v. 13. he shall not speak of himself ; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak.' v. 14. he shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine.' v. 15. • all things that the Father hath are mine ; therefore said I that he shall take of mine.' xx. 22. when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost.' Acts ïi. 2-1, 33. having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this—.' v. 32. “ we are his witnesses of these things, and so is also the Holy Ghost whom God hath given to them that obey him.' Rom. xv. 13. now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope through the power of the Holy Ghost.' 1 Cor. xii. 3. no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.' Heb. ii. 4. ·God also bearing them witness both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will.' Hence he is called the Spirit of the Father, the Spirit of God, and even the Spirit of Christ. Matt. x. 20. • it is the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you.' Rom. viii. 9. but ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you : now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.' v. 15, 16. ' ye have received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father ; the Spirit itself beareth witness with our Spirit, that we are the sons of God.' 1 Cor. vi. 11. by the Spirit of our God.' 2 Cor. i. 21, 22. • he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God; who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. Gal. iv. 6. God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.' Eph. i. 13, 14. that holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance.' iv. 30. grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed.' ï. 18. through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.' 1 Pet. i. 12. • the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven. From all which results the command in Matt. xxviii. 19. baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' 1 John v. 7. there are three that bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost ; and these three are one. The latter passage has been considered in the preceding chapter ; but both will undergo a further examination in a subsequent part of the present.
If it be the divine will that a doctrine which is to be understood and believed as one of the primary articles of our faith, should be delivered without obscurity or confusion, and explained, as is fitting, in clear and precise terms,-if it be certain that particular care ought to be taken in every thing connected with religion, lest the objection urged by Christ against the Samaritans should be applicable to us—ye worship ye know not what,' John iv. 22.-if our Lord's saying should be held sacred wherever points of faith are in question—we know what we worship’-the particulars which have been stated seem to contain all that we are capable of knowing, or are required to know respecting the Holy Spirit, inasmuch as revelation has declared nothing else expressly on the subject. The nature of these particulars is such, that although the Holy Spirit be no where said to have taken upon himself any mediatorial functions, as is said of Christ,