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In the Institution for the Blind there are The provisions for the education of In145 pupils—71 males, 74 females. There dian children and youth have, during the are 136 State pupils, and nine from New past year, been faithfully and efficiently Jersey. During the year, 30 have left by carried out. New school-houses have been graduation or otherwise, and 17 have been erected on several of the reservations; the received. The pupils are instructed in attendance upon the schools has been more common and higher English, music, and regular, and the improvement in the temvarious handicrafts, under the direction of per and spirit of the people is marked. 20 teachers. Most salutary reforms have There are yet, however, disabilities that: been inaugurated.

stand in the way of their advancement in In the New York Asylum for Idiots there intelligence and the arts of civilized life, are 140 pupils, embracing every grade of which justly claim the attention of the mental and physical imbecility. With very Legislature. There was paid for the supfew exceptions, the pupils give evidence port of the Indian schools during the last of steady improvement. The institution fiscal year $4,745.20. The current expenses is doing a noble work in elevating to use- for the year were, however, somewhat fulness and happiness this class of unfor larger.—The Thomas Orphan Asylum contunates. The State appropriation was tinues to do its invaluable work, in the $18,000—a per capita of less than $150 a care and education of destitute Indian year for each pupil.

children and youth.

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1864.

81

Constancy.
Downward, forever downward,

Behind earth's dusky shore,
They passed into the unknown night;

They passed--and were no more.
No more? Oh! say not šo !

And downward is not just,
For the sight is weak, and the sense is dim,

That looks through heated dust.
The stars, and the mailéd moon,

Though they seem to fall and die,
Still sweep, with their embattled lines,

An endless reach of sky.
And though the hills of Death

May hide the bright array,
The marshaled brotherhood of souls

Still keeps its onward way.
Upward, forever upward,

I see their march sublime,
And hear the glorious music

Of the conquerors of Time.
And long let me remember,

That the palest fainting one,
May to diviner vision be
A bright and blazing sun.

T. Buchanan Read.

CONSTANCY.

I

NEVER knew but one who died for love,

Among the maidens glorified in heaven
For this most pure, most patient martyrdom,
And most courageous. If courageous he,
Who grasped and held the Persian prow until,
Wielded by desperate fear, the cimeter
Gleamed on the sea, and it ran red below,
From the hand severed and the arm that still
Threatened, till brave men drew aside the brave;
If this be courage (and was man's e'er more ?).
Sublimer, holier, doth God's breath inspire
Into the tenderer breast and frailer form,
Erect when Fortane and when Fate oppose,
Erect when Hope, its only help, is gone,
Nor yielding till Death's friendlier voice says, Yield.

VOL. I.

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have also accepted and are entitled to seAMERICAN

lect within their own limits the quantity

of land allowed by the act referred to, are, EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY. Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, lowa, and

Kansas.

The number of acres to which the State MARCH, 1864.

of New York is entitled under this grant

is 1,050,000, Pennsylvania 710,000; and the SPECIAL EDUCATION.- AGRICULTURE AND

total amount required to satisfy the claims THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS.

of the States which have accepted as above N

the gravest import to the people of ment valuation of $1.25 per acre, will repthe United States. Under its provisions resent a capital of $5,650,000, the income lands were offered to the several States in of which is to be devoted, without diminuthe ratio of thirty thousand acres for each tion, to the special education of the indusrepresentative and senator to which the trial classes in the “sciences related to States were entitled under the apportion- Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts.” ment of 1860, for the purpose of providing

This act, in effect, inaugurates a great institutions whose “ leading object should scheme of national polytechnic education. be, without excluding other scientific and For, although the institutions to be estabclassical studies, and including military lished in accordance with its provisions are tactics, to teach such branches of learning called Agricultural Colleges, yet it is manias are related to agriculture and the me- fest, from a perusai of the several sections chanic arts, in such manner as the legis- of the act, that the instruction to be imlatures of the States may respectively pre- parted is by no means limited to that spescribe, in order to promote the liberal and cial branch. The applications of science practical education of the industrial classes to the various arts and military tactics are in the several pursuits and professions of required to be taught, "without excluding life.”

classical and other scientific studies." Any State having no public lands within The disposition which shall be made of its limits subject to settlement, or having this magnificent endowment by the several an amount insufficient to satisfy its quota, States accepting it, is a question of the is entitled to receive its distributive share greatest importance, and there is danger in land scrip at one dollar and twenty-five that the designs of the national Congress cents per acre. The States desiring to par- will be defeated in many cases by a misditicipate in this generous grant must signify rection of the means to be derived from their acceptance of it on the conditions im- the grant. We doubt whether the designs posed, by legislative enactment within two of the act will be best subserved by a conyears from the passage of the act of Con- nection of these agricultural institutions gress, approved July 2d, in the year afore- with our colleges as they now exist. The said.

act of Congress manifestly points to the orWe are informed by the Hon. Isaac ganization of schools for the promotion of Newton, Commissioner of Agriculture, the mechanic arts, and not for agriculture that the following States have accepted the alone. The objects of our literary colleges grant, and have received the scrip repre- seem scarcely to be in harmony with those senting their distributive shares respective proposed by the scheme before us. Instrucly: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, tion in agriculture, and in the applications Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, of science to the arts is a specialty. The New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, aims of the American college, as it now Illinois, and Kentucky. The States that exists, are general. The purposes of the 1864.)

The Dearth of Qualified Teachers.

83

S the supply of competente d'achers have

two are, therefore, incongruous. An or

THE DEARTH OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS. ganization which would befit the one woald not be adapted to the other.

OME of the causes of the deficiency in But there is one feature of the Congressional act which is very significant, and heretofore been alluded to. Among them which we hope will not be ignored by those we have specified, first, the stinted and who have the direction of these matters. inadequate compensation paid to this class That feature is most distinctly and emphat- of public servants; and, secondly, the gradically expressed in the words, “to promote ual elevation of the standard of qualificathe liberal and practical education of the tion among them, with the consequent reindustrial classes in the several pursuits tirement from the service of many heretoand professions of life.” Whatever method fore regarded as being fitted for its duties. will best subserve this prime object of In specifying still further the causes meeting the wants of the "industrial classes” which have contributed to this state of is the best. If the toiling millions, the things, we must not omit to say, that a bone and sinew of the republic, are expect want of the agencies adequate to the special ed in the future to matriculate at the col- training of teachers is one of the most poleges, and if they cannot be gathered into tent of all. Teaching is one of the most institutions more congenial to their needs difficult of arts. It is a profession, in fact and tastes, then we say let the glittering as well as in name. Its true practice is prize go to those venerable institutions of based upon the profoundest principles of learning, and let us make a virtue of neces- human nature, and upon the ripest fruits sity.

of human experience. These principles But it seems scarcely possible that the must be mastered as a condition precedent order of things is to be reversed in this to all really successful performance of the particular. The masses of the people, the teacher's work. The skill which study industrial classes, will continue as hereto- and experience alone can give must be acfore to receive their only education in the quired, or, at least, provided for, by precommon schools. Nineteen-twentieths of vious preparation. To this end Normal the people of this country are thus educa Schools or Teachers' Seminaries are indisted, and unless the coveted instruction pro- pensable. vided for by this grant can be diverted in These institutions are quite new in our part, at least, into this channel, it will fail country, and their number is extremely to accomplish its legitimate purpose as ex- limited. Compared with the army of pressed in the act. We need not so much teachers required to carry forward the & highly educated few, who will never stupendous work of public instruction, they mingle in the daily toil of the workshop or are but as "a drop in the bucket.” Only the farm, but rather the intelligent, think- eleven States have established them, and ing many, with minds stored with the ele- of these only three-Maine, Massachusetts, ments of that knowledge which is to “fit and New Jersey—have more than one. them for the various pursuits and profes- The number of teachers employed in the sions of life.” These suggestions are common schools of New York is not far offered in the kindest spirit, and with the from 25,000. The number in attendance sincere desire that a movement so impor- at its single State Normal School does not tant in its aims should not be diverted into exceed 250 persons. This gives a ratio of a wrong channel. The questions involved 1 normal student to 100 teachers in the demand, and we trust they will receive, common schools. Pennsylvania employs the most careful and dispassionate consid- in the course of the year probably not less eration.

than 20,000 teachers, and has but oue Nor

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mal School which is recognized by the must they make up their minds to see State; so that she would present about the their children, with dwarfed and distorted same ratio of Normal students to actual souls, coming upon the theater of life but teachers. In New Jersey the ratio of to blight their expectations and to bring sor“Normals” to the common-school teachers row and anguish to their hearts. An evil is about one to twenty.

tree can not bring forth good fruit, nor can If Teachers' seminaries possess the po- a good tree produce corrupt fruit. Let the tency which is claimed for them, and on people give palpable evidence that they this point there is no longer any room for value the character and happiness of their doubt, it will appear evident that their ab- children above the paltry promptings of a sence in so many States, and their limited love of lucre ; and let them pay their teachnumber in others, will go far toward ac- ers upon a scale somewhat approximating counting for the deficienoy in the supply to the standard of their importance and of competent instructors required for the worth, and the time of Dearth will be sucschools of the country; for it is undeniable ceeded by an era of Plenty in the land. that these Normal Schools, as small as The remedy to be further suggested will their number may be, have been the prin- be found considered elsewhere, in the discipal means by which the standard of qual- cussion upon the subject of Normal Schools. ification has been raised.

And again. If the foregoing exhibition of causes be just, it will at once suggest the

NORMAL SCHOOLS. needed remedies, and prepare

the
way

for VHESE institutions have not received a consideration of the means whereby & that share of attention in our country pressing public want may be supplied. to which their great importance entitles

Every public economist knows that them. Only eleven States have yet recogmoney will command talent. He knows nized them as a necessary adjunct of their that by the same law the highest prices school systems, and even in these they will secure the service of the highest at- have scarcely passed the experimental tainments. Nothing is more certain either stage. than that men ought to be compensated ac- The Normal Schools at present existing cording to the value of the services ren- are distributed as follows: Maine has prodered. In this view, a faithful, successful vided for two, which are not yet in operateacher is “a pearl of great price," and tion; Massachusetts has four ; Connecticut ought to be so regarded by the community. one; Rhode Island one; New York one; He will be so regarded when society rises New Jersey two; Pennsylvania one ; Michto a true appreciation of those influences igan one; Illinois one; Wisconsin one, and which most redound to its prosperity and

Iowa one.

The number in existence in happiness. The day is coming when the these States is yet by far too small to suptrue teacher will be second to no other ply the public demand for trained, profesfunctionary in the estimation of the sional teachers. A State like New York thoughtful, the just, and the good every- ought to have at least ten, equal to that at. where. Let the public, let school-officers, Albany, to meet her home demand for comlet all who have in their keeping the train- petent instructors. Pennsylvania needs as ing and elucation of children, bear in mind many more, and other States in like prothat henceforth they are not to estimate portion. In the twenty-four remaining the value of a good teacher by the price States no provision has been made for paid, unless it be a high one. Let them re- these teachers' seminaries, if we except member that so long as they ease their con- South Carolina. In that State there was, sciences by employing incompetence at before the advent of the rebellion, such an starvation prices to keep school, just so long institution at Charleston. We have no

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