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time under a mere intellectual pressure. of the child's nature the development of So will the plant sprout and expand won- which must alone render him able to obey drously in a dark cellar. It will grow the divine command, -"Lore one another." beautifully tall but painfully deficient in How shall we teach Christian virtues if strength and natural color. When we con- not objectively. Surely our Father, who sider that it is equally sinful to inflict an knoweth all our wants and provideth for injury upon the physical as it is upon the them, has not permitted us to grope our moral nature, more attention would be paid way in darkness. Has he not given us in to the observance of the general laws of the life of Christ an object for our study health. We can not refrain from entreating and imitation? Shall we not strive to be our co-laborers in the field to carefully observing students and faithful imitators, guard and tenderly nourish the beautiful so that Christian virtues may be reflected casket of the soul. Let the free air and through us, and produce happy results cheerful sunlight flood your rooms. We upon those who are induced to follow our do not duly estimate the importance of the example? We must be cheerful, patient, vivifying rays of the sun. Our school- consistent Christians, if we would cultivate rooms, our sleeping apartments, and our like virtues in those intrusted to our care. private parlors are kept too dark.

Keep the children actively and pleasantly employed. Activity is the law of child- VAE following neat and beautiful reply hood. Let the exercises be short, however, and varied. “Change is rest.”

sponse to a toast given in compliment to his There is danger, perhaps, more particu- wife, who was the object of his long and larly with those teachers who are introdu- affectionate attachment. It was given at & cing new methods of instruction of crowd political meeting. The English language ing the intellect at the expense of the body could furnish nothing more touchingly tenand heart. The methods referred to prove

der and graceful. exceedingly interesting to the children, and " There are some topics of so sacred it is possible that the mind may be over

and sweet a nature that they may be comstrained. This need not be the case it prehended by those who are happy, but certain principles are adhered to. No les- they cannot possibly be described by any son in the primary department should human being. All I shall do is, to thank exceed fifteen minutes. Exercises of a you in the name of her who was the disindifferent character should succeed each terested choice of my youth ; who was other, gymnastic movements, marching and the ever-cheerful companion of my manly singing should be introduced as a relief years; and who is the sweetest solace of after mental exercises. Frequent recesses that 'sear and yellow leaf' age at wliich I should occur.

have arrived. In her name I thank you; and this you may readily believe. For ex

perience, I think, will show to us all, that It is often remarked that the teacher man can not battle and struggle with maligexerts a more powerful influence over the nant enemies unless his nest at home is child than the parent. That such is a fact warm and comfortable-unless the honey in some instances is certainly true, and may of human life is commended by a hand that be accounted for on natural principles. In

he loves." proportion as a child loves his parent or teacher will he be influenced. Children,

WEET was the song that Youth sang once like adults, can not love that which is un

And passing sweet was the response; lovely. The affectional nature is not al

But there are accents sweeter far, ways cultivated in the family circle. Such

When Love leaps down our evening star, being the case, the teacher has a mighty Holds back the blighting wings of Time, mission to perform. Let him strive to Melts with his breath the crusty rime, render himself altogether lovely, and en- And looks into our eyes, and says, deavor to awaken and exercise that part “Come, let us talk of former days."

SOCIAL AND MORAL OULTURE.

1864.]

Gymnastic Apparatus.

71

GYMNASTIC APPARATUS.

INPE

II.

cient variety for persons of all ages. The

shape of all the clubs is that of Fig. 12.* II. INDIAN CLUBS. NDIAN CLUBS, or Scepters, as they

are sometimes called, are deservedly held in the highest esteem by all gymnasts, affording, as they do, one of the very best and most extended series of exercises for developing the muscular power of the whole body. Nothing can be better calculated to invigorate the respiratory system, expand the chest, call into action the muscles of locomotion and the principal structures around the joints, and enlarge and strengthen the muscles of the forearm, the upper arm, and the shoulder, as well as the abdominal and spinal muscles.

While they secure to a greater extent than any other apparatus the requisite simultaneous activity of the mental and the physical powers, in their beginnings they are accessible to the meanest capacity; since there are scarcely any who, at the first trial, can not. execute a number of the elementary movements.

Commencing with light implements and simple exercises, the student, by thoughtful and persistent efforts, will soon learn to handle heavy clubs in alternate, reciprocating, and double movements, tracing in the air the most varied and beautiful devices, in complex curves that seem at first almost inexplicable.

These clubs act like an incantation. Yog can not touch them, you can not lift

Fre 12 them for the simplest exercise, without causing strength to flow into every mem- Long CLUBS are pleasanter to handle, ber of your body as naturally and irresisti- and more effective, in executing a number bly as water into the conduit, when you of movements, than short ones. They are turn it on to irrigate and enrich the soil. specially adapted to exercise in gymnasiNew systems of muscles seem to shoot out ums, calisthenic halls, large rooms, and from your shoulder-blades, enabling you the open air, where there is an abundance to do, almost without effort, what you of space. could not dream of doing before. Move- Snort Clubs are more convenient, and ments that seemed awkward and hope will be found more generally useful than lessly difficult at first, soon become easy, long ones, especially in schools and famigraceful, and exhilarating.

lies. All of the long-club exercises may There are numerous and appropriate exercises both for long clubs and short

* The illustrations used in this series of arones. Four sizes of long clubs, and the

ticles are taken from “ Watsox's IIAND-BOOK OF same number of short ones, afford a suffi- CALISTHENICS AND Gruxastics."

[graphic]

.

easily be executed with short clubs, while of strength, clubs should be made of ironmany of the short-club exercises will be wood, locust, the heaviest mahogany, or found quite difficult at first, if executed lignum-vitæ. Very good light clubs, for with long clubs.

women and youth, are made of whitewood, The desired weight should not be secured ash, or Mexican mahogany. by varying the size, but the material. For The length of the club is determined by ordinary purposes, maple, beech, birch, or the length of the arm. The long club any hard wood of about the same density, is preferable. For strong men, or as tests

A А.

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1864.]

Gymnastic Apparatus.

73

as in Fig. 13. The short club in the same

position should extend nearly two inches im

above the elbow.

Indian clubs afford more than a hundred varieties of exercise that are equally well

adapted to males and females, individuals when held upon the arm extended hori- and classes. No other apparatus is equally zontally, should reach to the point of the satisfactory for private use. Figs. 14 to 20 shoulder where the arm and shoulder join, give some idea of the various positions.

Fig. 18

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IV. RINGS.

justly classed with the most desirable and Rings made of iron, and employed for valuable gymnastic apparatus. movements that are executed by the combined efforts of students arranged in pairs, have been used in our gymnasiums for many years. Although they are worthless in

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